Human resource is the most uncertain and unpredictable yet valuable and irreplaceable asset of an organization. The whole organization relies on the performance and behavior of the employees. Therefore organizations always try to recruit the best and outstanding candidates whenever possible. Hence the employees try to join with competitors who give more benefits to the customers. And so the organization should retain good employees. Concentration on retention and job satisfaction should be given by the organizations in order to keep the valuable employees with them (Jehanzeb and Bashir, 2013). Whenever a new employee joins into the organization a proper training and induction should be given to that employee because he has no idea how to work in the start. When it comes to technical work the organization has to spend huge cost for training and development of the employees. Hence trained employees are more valuable than unskilled employees and the productivity is high with skilled and trained employees. Therefore training and development has become an important function in human resource management.

Training and development is an important aspect of human resource management. Companies spend lot of money and time to train their staff because trained workers are like assets to the company. Trained employees can work more productively and efficiently. Trainings enable employees to learn about the job role. Further it encourages minimizing the amount of errors. (Jehanzeb and Bashir, 2013)Anyway just spending money or time and giving a some kind of training is not enough. The company should have an aim of conducting a training program. The company has to make sure at the end of training session the predetermined factors are achieved. If not there is no point of spending money on training. Therefore a training evaluation should be conducted after every training program. Basically a training evaluation estimates the end result whether it is success or not. A success training program should be able to change the content and knowledge of the trainees.

Different training needs for staff at different levels

When it comes to training and development, the same training cannot be given for every employee of the whole organization. Since the work done by each employee is different the training should be different according to their job role. Also the training should be based on the level of the organization as well. The same training which is given to the line managers can’t be given to the top management. It should be changed according to the level of the employee too. So organization has to consider about the employees level of hierarchy before implementing training programs. According to theory the training can be given as follows


Line manager has deal with the workers and he is responsible for the daily activities of the organization. He has to work with lot of technical activities such as equipment, tools and processes. Therefore he should have technical knowledge more than other level managers. But when it goes up in the level the technical know-how is needed less than line managers. The top managers barely use the technical knowledge because their responsibilities are different. But this does not mean that they do not need any technical knowledge in their work. When it comes to human management knowledge the all level of employees should have the knowledge evenly. Because all the managers should have the ability to deal regardless the level of hierarchy. But when it comes to conceptual skills the top management need more than other level managers. Therefore when the organizations decide the training program it should consider about the level of the employee.

In ABC Company organization they have differentiated their training program based on the employees’ level of education and experience. Basically they have differentiated the time period of the training program based on the education level and experience level. For a trainee manager right after the college, training of 24 months is required. A graduate from a university have to go through a 12 months training period. A manager who joins with early experience has to engage in 3 months training program. This is mainly implemented for employees to give an idea how the company operates and to learn about the job role (Business Case Studies, 2015).

Training Methods

ABC Company use different kind of training methods for their employees.

On the job training

ABC Company give their employees on the job training where employees have to learn the job role by engaging in the work routines. They have to observe what other employees do and try to imitate what the same level employees do. In this method the environment is same working environment. They train while working. A superior or a buddy is given for the trainer in order to get the practical training. ABC Company states that “to enjoy their work and feel they have all the skills they need to do their job to the best of their ability” (Business Case Studies, 2015). On the job training can be done in various methods as mentoring, coaching and job rotation. ABC Company use coaching as one of their on the job training method.


One of a superior or a coworker gives advice about the job role and how to do it. They explain which areas to improve and how to improve those areas. Most of the times in ABC Company the line managers act as the coach for the trainers. They monitor and explain the weaknesses and the opportunities of the trainer.

Advantages of on the job training

Since on the job training is a practical method it is more accurate rather than doing it in exams or theory. The trainer gets a clear idea how it actually done. Also on the job training do not cost a lot. Normally conducting a training program is costly to the company, since in this method the company does not need any lecturers or outside trainers to train employees. The same working environment can be used. No need to have new equipment or tools to train. All the resources are with the company itself. The employees find it easy and helpful because it is simple and no surprises. This method increase productivity of the trainer hence he actually go through the work activities so he can learn the exact way of doing things by allowing errors. Also it is a quick method for both company and the trainee.

Disadvantages of on the job training

It is hard to assign one member and instruct him to train the new employee because all the members might not have the skill of teaching. And that employee might know his job role only. Sometimes this leads to a rushed training process and the trainee might not get all the training tips at first time. Also involvement of new employees will reduce the productivity because the normal process is disturbed by them.

Systematic Approach

ABC Company mainly aim three approaches to build the training plan and design. One is ‘Developing value-for-money products’. They make sure that employees’ knowledge would be a benefit to create value addition to the products they offer. So ultimately the customers pay for the true and expected value they needed. The next factor is ‘investing in the environment’, which means that skilled employees are created and they will have new ideas to achieve efficiency and productivity from what they learnt. At the end of the day all the companies try to attract more customers. So the final approach is that ‘providing good customer service’ in order to serve the customers attractively. When a company has a good knowledgably work force they can easily satisfy the customer inquiries.

Evaluation techniques and plan

“Training evaluation is a measurement technique that examines the extent to which training programs meet the goals intended” (Alvarez et al., 2004) Training evaluation is more like a methodological perspective which is considered mainly on the outcome of the learning program. A proper evaluation enables to find out the benefits which were gained by both learners and the company itself. In order to have a successful training it should be match with the learner’s condition and the current situation. The training should be appropriate for the trainer which means the training should be matched with the trainers experience, job level, job role etc. Let’s assume that a line manager gets a training which is suitable for a top manager. Then there will be no connection between the learning and practicing. Therefore in an evaluation the HR team must consider whether the specific training is matched with the learner. Also the same learning point cannot be explained by using one method to all of the people, because people have different preferences when it comes to learning. So many factors need to be considered when evaluating a learning program.

After the training is done the trainers can get a feedback from the trainees regarding the training experience and how well it fitted to the each individual trainee. Trainers can use a questionnaire to get the feedback from the trainees’ right after the training. Since trainees can’t be recognized from the feedback they will tend to express what actually they felt about the training. Accurate feedback is a good guideline for future training programs as well. It points out the important areas which will be need some changes. And also there can be non-value adding areas as well. The trainees might realize that some parts are not necessary which will not increase any knowledge. Since future decisions are taken based on these feedbacks it is essential to get the accurate respond from the trainees. The trainees should be encouraged to express the actual response that they got from the training. However the trainees are encouraged to answer accurately there can be some trainees who are not respond the actual experience that they gained. They would answer wrongly and mislead the whole feedback process. In ABC Company also they can use a questioner after the training is completed and check the responses and decide how well it went and what kind of changes needed for future trainings.

Also the company can give a small task or an activity in order to check whether the trainee got the required knowledge. Even a small scenario can be given as the task. If the trainee is able to answer the questions well or complete the activity without any hesitation then, trainers can decide that the learning program is efficient. Let’s say that the trainees can’t answer or can’t complete the given activity, then the trainers should identify that there is some kind of loophole in the training program. This technique is a very successful method because the trainers can recognize how well the training has affected for them. If the task is a practical activity it will be more realistic rather than having a written task. Sometimes written exams will not present the actual knowledge because everyone is not good at writing. With a practical activity, the trainers can see how the trainees use the knowledge in practical situations. When it comes to ABC Company the trainers can give a small practical situation such as customer complain and examine how the employees react to the situation.

After the training is done the organization should analyze and see whether the predetermined aims are achieved by the training. When the training is done the perception of the trainee should be change. Now s/he knows a basic knowledge how to handle the work load. What the company can do is they can evaluate the progress before and after the training. First of all the company should list out the issues that they wanted to improve by the training program. Issues can be increase in productivity, minimize the wastage, change in cognitive factors, fast response and etc. When it comes to increment in productivity the company can check the amount of work done by employees after the training. ABC Company can use this technique can monitor the actual amount of cloths produced by operational staff before and after the training.

Training and the government

A study of National Management Salary Survey which was conducted by XpertHR and the Chartered Management Institute in 2010 show that the rate of labors giving resignation is 4.7% in 2009. With the help with the study the researchers were able to identify the main reason for resignation of employee is the ‘failure to offer career opportunities and training’ (Spellman 2010). Human resource is the most valuable asset yet hardest asset to control. Therefore they always try to join in the best. Since the companies should be aware to satisfy the employees by providing necessary training programs. Meanwhile government also can play a vital role in training the work force.

The government is trying to eliminate the obstacles of employability by providing the required training and development for the work force who are lack in. Government’s main intention is to cover the work force that does not get any training and development programs specially covering various communities. The ‘life-long learning’ concept is generated through this. Lifelong Learning Council Queensland Inc. defines life-long learning as “learning that is pursued throughout life: learning that is flexible, diverse and available at different times and in different places. Lifelong learning crosses sectors, promoting learning beyond traditional schooling and throughout adult life”. It helps the economy by creating a work force who are encourage to take risk and manage the uncertainties by facing the issues successfully. Government is the ideal institution for conducting such programs because the ability. It can be consider as a responsibility of the government towards the society.

A person gets his primary and secondary education at school but it is not enough because it is the basic foundation of learning. The lack of skills and competencies generates the vulnerability of the employment. Due to the gap in skills and abilities employees find it hard to survive in the labor market. This can be state as the main reason of conducting training and development by government. These trainings are not only limited to young work force. Since there is a large proportion of an adult in the work force they are entitled to these training programs as well. Sometimes the adult generation lacks more skills than the young generation when it comes to technology and innovation. But the younger generation lacks in long term planning and decision making due to less experience. Therefore it is essential to get the participant from all the employees.

Competence Development

Kock and Ellström (2008) stated “the concept of competence is defined by the rationale behind its purpose: is it for performance (used to improve), standards of quality (used to standardise) or is it underlying attributes of individuals (used to determine syllabus/content of learning)” The competence is differ from person to person based on their personal characteristics, educational level, knowledge level and many more. Developing competencies is not a job of one sector. Even though most of the times the responsibility of developing competency leans on public sector (Mulder, 2007), the both sectors should be engage with same commitment. The employees have to survive in this ever changing environment. Therefore they should be multi skilled, flexible and perform oriented in order to stay strong in the job market. In this era the competition is very high therefore each individual should be able to differentiate himself apart from others. Most of the organizations try to improve the competencies of individuals by promoting event such as on the and off the job training, induction programs, continuous assessments, performance appraisal and many more. The companies expect that employees will enhance in productivity, problem solving and decision making, leadership and become performance driven and flexible work force by conducting these programs.

Contemporary training initiatives by UK

In a country the government has to make sure that the business are steady and powerful because business organizations are the backbone of the economy. Therefore it is important to support and guide the business to climb up in the ladder of success. The UK government has initiated training programs to safeguard the business organizations by giving them the support to stay strong.

One of the initiatives taken by the UK government is the Industry Training Organisations (ITOs). From ITOs the government tries to support the businesses by providing financial support, performance measurement and focus on the growth. Another initiative is the Investors in People (IiP) which encourage all the organizations regardless the size of it to be committed in training the work force. A ‘Badge of Achievement’ can be obtained by the organizations to recognize their commitment to train the people. Business Links (BLs) is also introduced by UK government which was introduced to support the HR functions such as training and related activities. Another initiative introduced by UK government is the National and Scottish Vocational Qualifications (NVQs/SVQs). These qualifications provide industry led and educational led knowledge respectively. This method has enabled the work force to improve their knowledge and skills. Since the government is supporting to increase the skillful workforce in the country companies are motivated to engage in training and development programs. All kinds of initiative are well resourced and equipped with high administrative setup therefore the organizations can easily join with these programs and enhance the training and development exposure. (Matlay,, 2002)


Training is an important function comes under human resource management. It enables the new employees to work productively and to get familiar with their job role. Even though training incur a huge amount of cost to the company most of the companies thinks it as an investment. Because having skillful employees is an asset to the organization. Training can be done in various methods and each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore the management has to realize which method is the most suitable method for their organization based on the situation.

A company should monitor whether they were able to achieve the targets of conducting a training program. The aim of having a training program is mainly to increase the productivity and efficiently of the work force. Therefore the company has to make sure that the work force is able to increase the productivity after the training. Trainers can use different techniques to make sure whether the required aims are achieved. Training evaluation is a very important aspect since it makes sure that the training program is useful or not in achieving the aims.

Training the work force is not only a job of private companies. The government also has to play a vital role in training and developing the work force of the country. Life-long learning programs have to be conducted by government in order to enhance the skills of employees regardless the age and community. Government has to make sure that the work force of the country is capable enough to bear challenges and strive till end. Furthermore enhancing the development of competencies is an important factor in human resource management. It should not be just passed into a one sector. Both sectors which are private and public are responsible to develop the competency of the work force.

Governments are responsible to create skillful labor market in their country which will benefit to the economy as well. The foreign companies and investors attract to skilled labor. UK government has introduced various initiatives to increase the development of human resources. These programs help the business to improve their training programs and government supports the business to involve in more training and development activities. In order to motivate the organizations government offer recognition to the commitment that they have made.


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