Students who are with special needs are demonstrated learning difficulties, emotional and behavioral difficulties. Therefore, those students may face difficulties when they are learning at the class room with other children. Completion of the learning under the normal curriculum is a great challenge for them .As well the teachers also should perform an active role to educate these students. They will have to apply some strategies to educate the children with special needs. In this study it is aimed to explore and understand the teaching and learning process of special needs children.
In a class room, if there are students who needs special care, the teachers should identify their disabilities .Then they can apply some strategies to teach them under the normal curriculum .If the students are in a weak condition they can be directed to special educators who have obtained special training in addition to a general teachers training. It is discussed below some disabilities which may have demonstrated by special needs students. (Wyse, 2004)
2.1 Disability in Learning
Disability of a special need student may be emerging in different way. When some student show low disability in performing some task, another group of students may show high disability to perform same task .Disability or learning difficulty will be vary from one learner to another learner. At the class room learning, their class teacher or special educator will determine their level of disability based on the ability of their learning .The time taken to understand ,the time taken to answer or to resolve a sum ,some behavioral issues are evaluated to identify the magnitude of their disability. It may be in learning, emotionally or at the behavior. According to the carried out researches, educational experts have presented their ideas as reasons for these situation as various cognitive or psychological disorders .Hence the students learning, thinking ability is impaired.
Furthermore ,these researches have presented the ideas of the medical consultants view about these children as brain damages, heredity issues and the issues arisen during the pregnancy .Environmental condition is also another crucial factor to develop these weaknesses. .
2.2 Disability in Communication
Some special needs students may have difficulties in daily communication with other parties. When one student is having a listening difficulty ,another student may have a difficulty in talking If a student is having such issues in the communication , it is apparent that his/her education will be disturbed .The student will be totally depressed as they are not in a position to express their inside message to outside parties .The specialist has been evaluated and presented the reasons for the communication difficulties as speech disorders, languages disorders and disorder in fluency and voice. For some students communication difficulty may arise as simple sound repetitions, such as stuttering, to occasional disarticulation of word .But the dangerous situation is the some student may have a complete inability to use speech and language communication. (Wood and Attfield, 2005)
2.3 Emotional Disability
Some students may show disability in emotionally .Those children may have an inability to learn .But this situation is unable to identify at once and it is unable to explain by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. It can be noticed through their behavior for closed ones .Ex: parents, teacher and friends. Those students will be difficult to develop satisfactory social relationships with adults and family at home and with peers at class room. It is stated below some of the signs which demonstrates the emotional disability of a child. (Krause, Bochner and Duchesne, 2003)
- Undue fears and worries for different matters which are not expected from a healthy child
- Sudden decrease in school performance.
- Loss of appetite and changes in weight and excessive worry about weight gain
- Less interest with friends, playing games or other favorite activities.
- Sudden changes in sleep habits.
In a country, with the involvement of the government educational authorities has been arranged the special programs under the approved educational system for the students who are needed special care. Hence the parents and teachers have a duty to guide those disable students at the relevant age and at the basic disable condition to develop their skills and learning in using suitable learning strategy. (Rose, 2009)
. It is discussed below the some of the strategies that can be used for special needs learners
The teachers in a special need learner’s class room should have a suitable study materials such as text books and other supporting materials which can be used for different levels of students. Hence it will ensure that each student will have an opportunity to learn and develop the skills. It will cause to reduce the depression of those students.
Generally students are happy to work with peers and friends .Hence teachers can be used this factor for the benefit of the student who needs special care. Hence teachers can form small groups and assign some educational work for them to complete as teams. (Rogoff, 2003)
Another effective teaching method is the rotating the lessons which are provided under the normal curriculum. Then the teachers can introduce new materials for the groups who have performed well in previous days. The parents and the teacher can assist in this was changing the learning pattern within the class room environment. (Curtis and Hagan, 2003)
|Students A: Student A is a male students and he is having an emotional disability .Now he is learning in grade 5 and he is 11 year old .As per the carried out interview with the parents and the class teacher, they have presented their ideas about the student’s current situation and suggestion for improvement as follows|
- Parents’ View: From the age 1 he has shown some attributes of emotional disability. But considering his age, it was not considered and we considered that he will be developed his mentality when he grows and when he moves with friends at school. But after at the school education we noticed some traits and finally realized with the guidance of the medical consultation he is having some emotional disability. But he is not in a serious condition and it can be cured after following special education. The problem is he is not having an interest with friends, playing games or other favorite activities. According to the medical consultation, this is not due to brain damage or heredity issue. So he suggested that it may be due to an issue which was not identified in pregnancy. We hope .he will be cure when his growth.
- Class Teacher’s View: Student A is good student. He is kind and have good qualities. As well he is having different skills .Initially I was not able to identify these issues. But finally I noticed his less interest to associate with friends and to play games, etc. But we direct continually him for suitable group activities and allow him to understand the importance of having friends. Hope he will be cured in few years.
|Students B: Student B is a female students and she is having a communication disability .Now she is learning in grade 5 and he is 11 year old .As per the carried out interview with the parents and the class teacher, they have presented their ideas about the student’s current situation and suggestion for improvement as follows|
- Parents View: After the medical consultation, we identified that she is having a listening disability. At early child hood, we noticed some attributes related to this issue .But we thought that she is careless considering her age .However, she is having treatments continually. Considering the age, we hope .she will be cure when her growth.
- Class Teacher’s View: Student B is an innocent girl with good qualities. As well she is having different skills such as drawing, and creative thinking. .Initially I was not able to identify these issues. But finally I noticed her carelessness is due to her weak listening… But we direct continually her for suitable activities and if it is needed we can direct her for special education with the permission of parents,
It is important to identify the key features of education, such as their strength, interest, needs, abilities as well as weaknesses and disabilities when educating the special need students. When developing the curriculum those things should be focused to improve the particular disability in special needs students. However the parents and teachers have a duty to guide those disable students at the relevant age and at the basic disable condition to develop their skills and learning in using suitable learning strategy
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Hurwitz, S. C. (2003) ‘To Be Successful – Let Them Play!’ Child Education, 79 (2).
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Rogoff, B. (2003) the Cultural Nature of Human Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Rose, J. (2009) Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum. London: Department for Children,
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Wood, E., Attfield, J. (2005) Play, Learning and the Early Childhood Curriculum. London: Paul
Wyse, D. (Ed) (2004) Childhood Studies: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell