Tourism is one of booming industry in worldwide. According to the Valdmir (2014) World Tourism generate over one trillion dollars per annually and revenue of that sector was equally compete with petroleum and Automotive sectors. Number of Tourist arrival and tourism activities are doing the huge impact to national gross domestic production. When concern about Sri Lankan tourism contribution to economic development of the country, it offers to the new job opportunities and create new source income by developing infrastructure. According to Sri Lankan tourist board, they expecting that around 4 million tourist arrive on 2020. When concern on tourist arrival patterns tourist are arrive on specific seasons of the year. This refers as seasonality effect in tourism . Moreover, this seasonality effect in tourism can done a huge impact to the host community which maintain their daily expenses via through the tourism generated revenues. This seasonality effect can be seen in southern area regular and this study is going to discuss the issues related to the seasonality effect of southern area tourism in Sri Lanka.
Seasonality means concentration of tourism demand of certain time period (Banda2014).Moreover, according to him this seasonality effect has been result due to the natural conditions like weather and holidays that granted on other countries. Tourist arrival on Sri Lanka are highly seasonal. Main tourist season in Sri Lanka generally December to march. In here tourist operators are concerning December is the peak month in tourism in Sri Lanka. At that time period hotel rates, Travel plans and other tourism products prices goes up in drastic level. Second peak season of the country will be July-august which concern as the windy weather conditions in the country. There are major causes for this seasonality. According to Hylleberg (1992) he grouped three basic causes of seasonality .First one is as weather. It means as example temperature can used measure tourist arrival. Second one will be calendar effects like timing of religious festivals such as Christmas. Third one will be timing decisions like school vacations, industry vacations and etc. This seasonality patterns can direct effect to the tourism industry and host community in rigorous manner. Seasonality has been a big problem to a tourism industry over the years. When concerning the problems, that are gaining access to capital, in obtaining and holding full time staff, for low returns on investment causing high risk in tourism operations are become the major issues of this problem. According to cicheetti (2012) Seasonal effects can be categorize according into three main categories like economic impacts, socio-cultural impacts and ecological impacts. When concern economic impact primarily seasonality associated with issues in the off peak periods tourism destination. When concern on the southern area of Sri Lanka when at off peak season ,there will be loss of profits due to the inefficient use of resources like hotels, tourist arrival points and other facilities like boat services , Spa services and etc. More over due to this reason Tourism business and host community want target higher revenue from the dedicated les time period in order to sustain in the next time period of a Year. Due to this reason there will be big problem when collecting the capital towards their business , especially from the financial institutions .Since, when concern on repayment procedure these institutions are more concern on Repayment ability. These can be seen hugely in this small tourist hotels since there are not having enough resources to face this economic recession in the off peak season. Moreover, due to Tsunami effect in 2004 southern coastal area has been destroyed and new rules and regulations imposed in to protection of coastal areas. Due to this reason and seasonality effect of low income generation and new investors are reluctant to engage with new investing activities. Therefore, there are lack improvement in the resources and infrastructure in coastal areas which reduce the income generation effect of the host community. Moreover, when concern about the hotel room facilities in the peak season there can be high demand for accommodation services, although there can be less demand for off peak season. This can be caused to employment problem in host community, since when recruiting staff there will be issue in attracting full time employees and labor turnover and job dissatisfaction issues.
When concern about the socio economic impact that specifically impacting on the community around the tourist destination. As per the southern area as tourism destination at the peak seasons there will be huge traffic in the roads, long waiting lines for obtain services in hospitality services. Moreover, there will higher prices for certain goods and services. Furthermore, there will be a rise in crime activities like sexual harassments, Drug related crimes activates in society. Due to this reason local community will resist the Tourism activities in southern coastal area which effecting to their life style and freedom. Moreover, when concern on the ecological impact there will be huge effect to natural resources of southern area at the peak season. Especially there will be pollution issues, disturbance of wild life for especially Yala sanctuary, moreover, there will be overcrowding situation in the rural areas which directly effecting to the host community life style. According to the Cannas (2012) heavy usage of the natural environment in Tourism during the peak season can be impacts on the ecological carrying capacity of any Tourist destination.
As per the seasonality effect definition it says that how certain kind of activities are performed in limited time period. Seasonality basically effect on destination and host community in the aspect of economical, ecological and socio cultural impact. Due to these effect specially when concern on the southern area there will be certain problems which can be arise in a ways of poverty, Unemployment, investments, Environmental pollution, Crime activities ant etc. Therefore Its responsibility of host community and authorities which responsible for development of Tourism activities of southern area for remake or adjust the issues related with tourism activities.
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