This report is a serious endeavor in order to critically analyze and discuss the Project Management Plan (PMP) document of the Home Security System (HSS) project, developed by the Department of Computer Engineering of Fatih University, Istanbul – Turkey in June 2003. The PMP is a document handed to a client or manager to explain how it is intended to manage the project from the initiation to completion phases throughout a project. A PMP is also a crucial document expected to achieve successful project outcomes, frequently used to increase sponsor or client commitment, and must comprise adequate information to permit such a decision to be made with confidence. Accordingly, in this report; the project background has been clearly described with its context including the project sponsor, what they do and why the project has been done, etc. In addition, the structure of the PMP has been thoroughly exemplified by examining and comparing a range of theories and opinions on the existing alternatives for the overall structure of a PMP and the sections pointed out in the table of contents to provide the information to decision makers have been well discussed. Furthermore, the contents of the PMP have been critically analyzed with the support of the theoretical framework by illustrating the major sections of the selected PMP. Finally, a conclusion has been drawn by way of summarizing the findings from the analysis of the PMP and recommendations have been suggested flowing from the analysis with regard to the selected PMP document.
The key intention for preparing this academic report is for critically analyzing the Project Management Plan (PMP) of a typical accomplished project. Project planning is a challenging stage of any projects. Main sponsors constantly pressure the project manager to move the project forward when the project charter and business case is approved. However, these documents are prepared generally based on presumed information in the absence of real data, and the planning phase is time-consuming in that it needs an immense amount of real data to be gathered, processed, analyzed and documented thus it lets the sponsors in order to commit to the project with the confidence that the outcomes would be steadfast with their expectancies. The techniques by which project managers attain this objective is to develop a widespread document encompassing appropriate information on all facets of the project that amount to some risk to the project outcomes (University of Southern Queensland, 2015, pp.1-15). In terms of that, a Software Project Management Plan was chosen to analyze of a project, named ‘Home Security System’ (HSS), developed by the Department of Computer Engineering of Fatih University, Istanbul -Turkey in 2003 in order to provide a complete security system solution for houses to protect from fire and burglary in the United States while house landlords are either at home or gone away. Therefore, this report has been structured by way of critically discussing the PMP comparing with the theoretical aspects including the structure and major contents of the PMP document throughout the report in clear detail. Finally, the findings from the analysis have been summarized and imposed in conclusion and recommendations with regard to the selected PMP have been proposed.
The project sponsor ‘Fatih University’ is located in Istanbul, Turkey and was established in 1996 by the Health and Therapy Foundation of Turkey consisting three campuses one in Istanbul other two in Ankara. Its ambition is to provide theoretical and practical education facilitating the research and development areas. The Graduate School of Fatih University provides range of programmes such as Biomedical Engineering, Science and Engineering, Health and Social Science, etc. (Admission Global, 2018). According to Delibas et al (2003), it was recorded in 2001 that there were 383,500 home fires in the United States, as consequence 3,110 deaths, 15,200 injuries, and $5.5 billion complete damages for the properties along with predictable 2,329,950 annual burglaries cause nearly $3.1 billion yearly loss by victims. Homes that do not have security surveillance approximately 3 times most probably to be aimed by a burglar and 60% of household burglaries happen during the daytime. The Home Security System (HSS) is proposed to deliver a complete protection for houses while owners are either at home or away and “that monitors the house with sensors and informs the house owners and fire department when it detects a fire with gas (smoke) sensor, house owners and police department when it detects a thief with PIR sensors.” The HSS likewise delivers the beneficiaries to monitor their properties from web while they are absent, and have the facility to access and control the system from their mobile phones via Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) technology. Furthermore, the recorded present camera captures from its database supporting the police in theft cases in order to detect the thieves or culprits immediately.
Analysis on the Structure of PMP (Housing Security System)
Harvard Business Review Staff (2016) pointed out that, whether it is developing a website, crafting a car, changing a department to a new building, modernizing an information system, or any other project either large or small, it should travel through the identical four phases of project management such as planning, building, implementing, and closing. Even though the phases own different qualities, they overlay. When we think about project planning, our minds incline to jump immediately to scheduling, though we would not even reach to that part till the building phase. Planning is indeed about defining basics; what problems required to be solved, who will be involved, and what will be accomplished. Project Management Plan (PMP) tends to be a formal, approved official document that outlines how a project is executed, monitored, and controlled; it is greater than a schedule chart. Also, PMP can be a summary or an exhaustive document and encompass baselines, subordinate management plans, and further planning documents. The PMP is not generated all at once. It is gradually developed, sophisticated, reexamined and updated (Sabyasachi, 2017). A project management plan delivers a great amount of information for all the stake holders linked to the project and in the outset it is a simple planning tool, conversely during the project, it will become one of the most significant control instruments and it is a measurement tool of whether the project has reached its goal after the project ends (Passemheim, 2009, p.43).
In terms of the chosen Home Security System (HSS) project management plan document, the structure of the plan is too narrow and brief in detail. Project overview, project deliverables and evaluation of the software management plan under the heading Introduction, Project responsibilities under Project organization, Management objectives and priorities, risk management and monitoring and controlling mechanisms under Managerial Process, Software documentation under Technical Process, Resource requirements, budget and resource allocation, schedule under Work Package, Schedule and Budget heading of PMP would provide information for decision makers. The theoretical aspects clearly elaborate the typical structure of project management plan which mainly consists of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), Gantt chart, Critical Path Analysis (CPA), and Project Evaluation Review Techniques (PERT) on the document. Here in the selected HSS these are not available. In addition, there are only five major components with subheadings discussed here. In addition, Quality management plan, Human resource plan, Communication plan and Procurement plan are the major contents missed here. As compared to the literature review, these are the apparently exposed drawbacks in this PMP document. There are alternative Project Management Plans for the overall structure of the selected PMP have been discussed in precise manner throughout this report.
Wisely planning the project appreciated to be the crucial aspects of any projects. Typically, tasks, milestone, project schedule, risks, communication, quality, etc. and deliver a plan that project team would consult throughout implementation. A project plan states the aims & necessities of the project based on the scope, schedule, resource demand, cost estimation, quality and, risk management of a project. It also facilitates project manager to interpret project necessities into Work breakdown Structure (WBS), list of tasks, Gantt charts, resource allocation and risk register, etc. Indeed, careful & detailed planning assist us to moderate risks and consequently insecurity in any assigned project. The project planner endeavors to do an arrangement for possible incidents of uncertainties well in advance in precisely planned projects. It is right that project plan formerly would not look out of all unanticipated incidents, perils, and abnormalities (Zilicus Solutions, 2012, pp.1-12). In order to attain a comprehensive understanding of project management methodology, a clear insight of a project plan should be reinforced. To initiate a project plan, there first should be a knowledge about the phases of a project. Any project, no matter its size or industry application, consists a beginning, middle and end. Also, the planning processes outlines and polishes the goals, plans and achieves a successful project. As well as, the project scope, cost and scheduling of tasks or activities occurs and the formation of the work breakdown structure, cost estimation, risk identification, quality and communication plans are constructed (Click, 2008, pp.20-24).
Project planning denotes the project commencement and it engages recognizing and planning the work suites or actions essential to accomplish the project; organizing estimates of project duration, cost, and resources; creating strategies to confirm quality, handle risks, and control range; launching communication and reporting tactics; obtaining resources, both persons and contracts; and incorporating these components into an exhaustive document as the project plan. This can be completed using project planning tools such as Work Break down structure, Gantt chart, Critical Path analysis and Project Evaluation Review Techniques (PERT). Project execution includes bringing different plans to reality, in other words, plan is placed into action. The plan is executed upon to achieve the project goal that is done by confirming that suitable quality standards and operational definitions are applied. Project implementation comprise the processes done to accomplish the work demarcated in the project management plan to fulfil the project details that engages managing people and resources (Jack et al, 2016, pp.65-77).
One of the crucial factors for succeeding a project is to have a fully-fledged project plan. This is not only exposing how it offers guideline for project managers to pursue but also discovering why it appreciated to be the best communication and controlling tool for project managers during the project. As such; 1. Illustrate the project plan to main stakeholders and converse its main components. 2. Outline roles and responsibilities to key players such as project sponsor, nominated business professionals, project manager, project team, beneficiaries and others. 3. Conduct a kickoff meeting with stakeholders to discuss the project. 4. Create a scope statement to describe the project outcomes. 5. Create a scope baseline as Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that is the decomposition of all the deliverables in the project. 6. Create the schedule and cost standards. 7. Develop standard management plans. 8. Create the employment plan. 9. Examine the quality and risks of the project. 10. Create a communication plan (Larson, and Larson, 2018, pp.1-7).
Analysis on the Contents of the PMP (Housing Security System)
Developing Project Management Plan (PMP) is the practice of defining, arranging, and consolidating all subordinate plans and incorporating them into an exhaustive plan. The significant advantage of this practice is an essential document that outlines the base of entire project work. The project management plan’s content differs based on the application domain and complexity of the project. It is established over a sequence of unified processes expanding through project closure. It can either be brief level or exhaustive, and can be constituted of one or more subordinate plans. Every subordinate plan is structured to the extent needed by the particular project. When the PMP is baselined, it can only be altered once a change request is created and sanctioned through the Perform Integrated Change Control method (PMBOK Guide, 2013, pp.72-78).
In the case of the selected HSS project management plan document, the major contents have been drawn into six headings. Under these major contents, there are sub contents added. In terms of the first major content Introduction; project overview like what is the project about, why it is performed, who is the project sponsor, etc., and on project deliverables the outcomes of the project are denoted, on the evaluation of the software management plan that three stages of the project is evaluated and reference materials with definitions and acronyms have been well discussed. Furthermore, under the second major content Project Organization; process model, organizational structure and project responsibilities of the project manager, developer, tester and webmaster have been described in detail. In the third major content Managerial Process; management objectives and priorities such as management’s expectations over this project and reporting the issues and risks mentioned, assumption, dependencies and contents like scheduling plans and budget have been stated, risk management and monitoring and controlling mechanisms have been perfectly enclosed. Technical Process is the fourth major content. Here; methods, tools and techniques as major process activities, the computing system and software tools of HSS and software documentation have been briefly discussed. Fifth major content is Work Packages such as contents in the HSS package, dependencies and resource requirements, Schedule and Budget have been delineated. The last major content is Additional Components, under this the only additional component installation plan has been notified. Furthermore, since this is a small software project, the contents were not deeply discussed in detail and lack of number of contents as mentioned and recommended in the literature review. Generally, there should be ten major contents written, here only five contents have been briefly discussed with key points for the understanding of the project team and sponsor (Home Security System, 2003).
On the other hand, Roseke (2016) demarcated the most common and major typical contents to be included in the Project Management Plan in clear details as follows;
Write an outline of the project. Recognize what is the project’s goal, who are the stakeholders and what are the critical success factors. Be as numerical as likely with success factors. Typically, is there a particular quality standard to be enclosed? Is there a deadline to be faced? If there is a project charter, that is a worthy place for what to comprise in this part. The critical success factors ought to be recognized. Especially, what is the meaning of project success? Deadlines and budgets are generally part of it, but do not omit stuffs such as project sponsor approval, minimal change orders, minimal rate of rejections, etc.
Project Scope Statement
Mention the key tasks and activities belongs to the project, If the scope is not clearly demarcated anywhere, this is undoubtedly a perfect time to describe it, keep in mind that project scope confusion is the prime cause of any failed projects. Additional tasks are money waste where stakeholders mostly translate any unclear parts in the scope themselves. Typically, the scope of a transaction project failed to outline purchasing the land, then the owner would think it is chunk of the project, and the project engineer would perhaps think vice versa. Keep in mind, it can happen.
Every project should possess deliverables that the project generates and provides to the client as products or services. They must be stated in detail within the PMP along with appropriate specifics about the quality, length, size, or any other relevant principles.
Employees are the most valuable resource to the organizations and employee job satisfaction and loyalty represents one of the most key challenges faced by the managers. Loyalty indicates employees being committed for the while believing in the organization. The aim of the report is to analyze the various literatures available regarding the topic to identify any relationship and various factors of job satisfaction, loyalty and commitment.
Plato explained that ‘a man who is just can be loyal, and that loyalty is a condition of genuine philosophy’. For an example if there is a man who is eating food from a restaurant everyday cannot be considered as a loyal customer because he may be eating because the restaurant is open late. If another restaurant opens up which stays late then this man would be going to the new restaurant. This applies to loyalty and job satisfaction as well. These concepts need to be scratch below the surface to get a better understanding.
The concept of Job satisfaction was introduced in 1935 by Hoppock. He described job satisfaction as “any combination of psychological and environmental circumstances that cause a person to say that I am satisfied with my job”. Job satisfaction is basically refers to a person’s feeling towards their job which acts as motivation to work (Asian J. Management; 7(2) April- June 2016). It is a positive individual feeling influenced by various factors such as salary, management, work groups, working conditions, promotions, brand image of the organization etc. It can mean different things to different people hence job satisfaction is a complex concept. When an employee joins the organization, they bring in a set of wants, desires and expectations. Job satisfaction represents the extent to which expectations are matched with real benefits.
Loyalty as defined in Encyclopedia Britannica (1998) is how much a person have attachment to a particular object , this object can be anything; a person, an idea, a set of activities, or anything which makes him or her to display devotion. In other words a person going through various struggles to do better for that particular object because he or she has an interest towards it. Loyalty is always not the attitude but the actions of great impact Meyer & Allen (1991). According to Solomon (1992) if the employee is willing or stay in the organization that is also considered as willingness. Those employees believe that working for the organization is their best option. They do not actively search to join into other firms and shows a blind eye to any sort of offers (Loyalty Research center 1990). Loyalty is an organizational citizenship behavior that reflects the allegiance to the organization by promoting its interests and image to outside world. (Bantten Court, Gwinner and Meuter 2001). In summary Loyalty showcase three different factors. Strong desire to be part of the organization, willingness to exert effort to achieve organization goals, they publicly accepts organization value (Mowday Porter and Steers 1979)
Many researches have stated numerous facts to showcase the link between job satisfaction and employee loyalty. (Karatepe etal; 2006; Furnham et al; 2002). Porters and Steers (1973) explain that job satisfaction shows aggregate level of net worker views and those employees will stay loyal to their jobs. The range of choice may be different to each worker. If these preferences are not met the satisfaction level will drastically drop down. There are so many factors that are said to be creating job satisfaction and then Loyalty. Most researched define that if the organizational environment, behavior of the organization matched to the person who work in the organization, it means employees will work on given time, value and characteristics, knowledge of a person is high than the degree of job satisfaction is positive (Motta 1985; Kristof 1996). Walker (2005) explains that there is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and job loyalty only of the organization provides opportunities for the employees to grow in their career paths, knowledge expansion and sharing options, have career mapping discussions allowing to real term benefits. As per Foam 19998 it is recognition of work, rewards, working conditions, relationship with superiors, peers and subordinates also creates job satisfaction which leads to loyalty. According the Mccusker & Wolfman cognitive factors like honesty, trust, respect for one another in the organization creates both satisfaction and loyalty.
- Participation – Giving authority to make decisions to create a participate decision making culture ( Knoop 1995). If the employees think they are not equals in the organization hierarchy, their decisions are not valued it creates dissatisfactions (Cottenetal 1988 , p.17).
- Empowerment – Provide knowledge, facts and authority and freedom to decide actions to fulfill day to day activities which in return creates more relationship and belonging towards the organization. (Hales and Klidas 1988)
- Rewards and Recognition – According to Bowen (2002) rewards is what is received for a service. Benefits the employees are getting for the work they have done for the organization are the rewards as per Kelleberg 1977, Morttaz 1988). In simple words, a tangible gift, intangible word of appreciation, promotion both formal as well as informal, given to an employee for being successful in a particular task is a reward or a recognition. As per Bowen 2002 acknowledging an employee for his or her contribution publicly is considered as recognition.
- Work Place Environment – This can be either working conditions like lighting, tools, space, ventilation etc., extent of facilities given in the organization, cleanliness, state of the coworkers are all considered working environment. Studies show that these factors may affect an employee’s physical and mental health if not provided well as per the standards. Farenkopf & Roth 1980 studies about eight factors of working environment that goes in line with job satisfaction.
- Leadership – Leadership relates to the process of influencing, motivating, empowering a group of people in achieving organization goals. There is lot of leadership styles involved. Bureaucratic, charismatic, democratic, laissez-faire. There is no universally accepted leadership style as it depends to various situations. Leaders’ needs to identify which suits best for which employees and keep them satisfied and motivated..
Relationship of job satisfaction and job loyalty would be positive if the organization is willing to provide the above factors to the employees.
One of the theories developed by Maslow 1943 if hierarchy of needs theory. It is a psychological theory where the needs are divided into five categories; physiological, safety, love[belonging, Esteem and self-actualization. Once the bottom layer needs are satisfied the person will try to satisfy the next level of deeds. According to this theory, if linked to an organization, to motivate and create satisfaction of employees the manager should be aware which level the person is in. Manager has to provide necessary solutions for his subordinates to cater to their particular needs while ensuring organization vales and goals of the organization are also achieved. Manager needs to constantly supervise the members to identify the needs and to see how to make them happy which is not a very easy task.
This theory was introduced in 1959 by studying 200 accountants and engineers in the effort to identify the factors that contribute to their dissatisfaction and satisfaction of their job. Hygiene Factors which described the factors of the dis-satisfied employees fell into categories of organizational policies, supervision, salary, status, security, working environment. Motivation Factors explained the factors which need to be satisfied, such as salary, responsibility, rewards, status, promotion, recognition, authority, growth. Schermerhorn (1993) explains that Herzberg’s two factor theory is useful to identify employee satisfaction motivation and commitment. He says that it is manager’s duty to remove the facts that creates job dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors can be used to satisfy the dissatisfied employees and then motivational factors can be used to motivate the satisfied employees who will then be committed to the organization.
foregoing contents discussed in the literature review is imperative to get a successful outcome from the Home Security System Project. Although, Billows (2016) argued that, there is no logic behind overloading minor projects with numerous project management practices. A vital component of the PMP is determining what you do not do. According to his perception, the HSS project is comparatively a small project. Hence, following international standards is crucial for a better outcome of the project while doing the project management plan.
With regard to the above discussed project management plan document, a number of shortcomings identified from the analysis and comparison with the theoretical aspects. Accordingly, the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), Gantt chart, Critical Path Analysis (CPA), and Project Evaluation Review Techniques (PERT) should be enclosed and explained in clear details in the PMP. Also, it is imperative to always adhere with the international academia that is the literature review and follow their standards. In terms of that, the PMP document of the Home Security System (HSS) should develop a complete document consisting the missing parts here that Quality management plan, Human resource plan, Communication plan and Procurement plan for any similar or prospected projects. In order to do that, it is crucial to read the theoretical aspects of international academia and the so called best practices.
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Project Management Plan of Home Security System (HSS)