1. Introduction

This report is basically discussing about the importance of motivation in order to enhance the individual performances. Firstly, the report provides the introduction to motivation and further discussed about the difference between morning and evening person. Next the report discusses about the theories and types of motivation and how this motivation positively and negatively impact on human.

  1. Defining Motivation and Fundamentals
    1. Explain the concept of motivation by comparing five theorist’s definitions

Motivation plays a critical role in human behaviors and their performances. Motivation can be recognized as a theoretical construction of explaining goal directed behavior especially, intensity, direction, persistence and quality of human behavior (Brophy, 2010). Staw(1983) revealed that motivation as a factor of energizing and guiding behavior. Further, he explained that it has a power of chaining behaviors and attitudes. According to Mondy, Holmes and Flippa(1980), motivation is a process which can influence or stimulate to work on accomplishing desired goals and objectives. Motivation can be recognized as some kinds of emotions or desires of a person which determines his action (Mathis & Jackson, 1982). Motivation can be recognized as the mechanism of fulfilling need, wants and tension states in order to achieve goals successfully (Hoy & Miskel, 1982).

    1. Outline the difference between “Morning Person” and “Evening Person”, based on their intensity of behavior

Most of the researchers had said that there are considerable differences between “morning” and “evening” people. They further explained that it is not because of their disciplines or habits but the biological differences (Philips, 2009). While evening people required long nights, morning people love to wake up early and start their works. According to the researchers, morning people are showing trustworthy, emotionally stable and conscientious in their behaviors. When compare to morning people, evening people are emotionally not stable but those people are really creative than others (Mehta, 2015).

According to the online research on personality it was found that most of the men had dark triad personality traits such as Psychopathy Narcissism, and Machiavellianism and they are related to evening people. Generally those people love dim lights, less monitoring and don’t have attention or alertness in mornings (Mehta, 2015).

Researchers found that evening people are creative and generally have high speed thinking capacity, high problem solving skills and give uncommon and rare solutions. However, morning people are punctual and high time management skills than evening people (Mehta, 2015).

    1. Critically evaluate on techniques that can use to motivate 06 years student to answer some mathematical questions

Motivation is highly required to keep enthusiasm of the students on mathematics as the some students are struggling with the subject. Teachers should pay more attention on the students those who have less interest on mathematics. Teachers can use extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors to motivate their students.

As extrinsic motivators, teachers can use rewards to motivate and encourage students. For examples, can give economic rewards to appreciate good performers and good works, peer acceptance, can create a thought in students mind that they can avoid punishments by performing well.

On the other hand some students require intrinsic rewards. Some students generally love to follow task and meet deadline. They are highly task oriented and motivated by achieving tasks. Some students are ego related and motivated by performing than others. They require high praises and high recognition among others.

Teachers should understand the behavior of the students and the factors which they can use to motivate them.

  1. (T 02)
    1. Outline the Grand theory in motivation

Motivation can be recognized as the internal drive of behaving in a certain manner. The internal drives such as wishes, goals and desires move in a particular direction in behavior. Grand theory of motivation explained the different types of motivations. It is basically focused on will, instinct and drive. “Will” expressed that a person can make free decisions. Person can select best motivator in order to satisfy his desires. For example person can select to have cake to satisfy her hunger. “Instinct” expressed that person is not motivated by will but he is motivating through instinct. It just likes an act of animal. For example, a person can have fruit salad instead of having cake because he has an instinct towards that kind of foods. “Drive” can be identified as a physiological need. This third grand theory of motivation direct people to satisfy physical needs.

    1. Research on main brain structures involved in Approach oriented and avoidance oriented behaviors. Present your findings

The capacity to seek objectives adequately is basic for accomplishing long-term wellbeing and prosperity. Actually, freely meeting even our most fundamental needs requires some level of effective objective interest. Objective interest can be characterized as “reactions deliberately performed to realize or keep up a coveted state” or “reactions purposefully performed to control or keep an undesired state,” frequently named approach and avoidance goal interest. Approach and avoidance inspiration are speculated to shape the “essential building hinders that underlie the unpredictability of human behavior”. A few scientists have proposed that these motivational frameworks are contained various progressive levels, with bring down levels of these models subservient to more elevated amounts.

For example, Higgins and partners (for an audit, see Scholer and Higgins, 2008) proposed a structure with three levels: the framework, key, and strategic levels. These levels are believed to be various leveled, yet the choice of approach and avoidance is autonomous at each level.

    1. Evaluate on how the three principles presented by Reeve can be applied for the motivation to eat, because of hungry.

According Reeve (2015), there are three principles related to motivation and emotions. He explained that the specific brain structure generate specific motivational states. For example, when a person is not having food, the person may feel hunger and need something to eat. The feeling of hunger creates hypothalamus. This hypothalamus occurs because of increasing ghrelin. So that it can say that specific brain structures are stimulated by biochemical agents. Day to day activities of a person leads to create biochemical agents. For example, not having foods for a long time leads to increase ghrelin.

Source : Reeve(2015)

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    1. Compare the difference between Needs and Wants

Needs can be defined as something that a person requires to thrive. It can be physical or mental requirements. For example, basic needs such as foods, water, air, health, safety needs, relationship needs, self needs such as recognition, growth mentally and physically. Specially, without fulfilling these needs, it is difficult to survive.

When compares to need, wants can be identified as things that a person requires to fulfill the needs he has. Although people have same needs, wants are different. These wants depend on environment, his or her background etc.

    1. Produce a comparison table to show the difference between Psychological drive and Physiological needs.
Physiological needsPsychological drive
Concern on needs to maintain and keep human physically fit.Concern on mental well-being of a person
Expect to fulfill basic physical needs such as foods, water, home, health, safety etc.Expect to fulfill psychological needs such as relationship, love and affections, growth, recognition etc.
Deal with basically external needTry to satisfy inner needs
Will be able to survive after fulfilling these needsCan’t survive fulfilling these needs without fulfilling physiological needs
    1. Critically evaluate why autonomy-supportive motivating style works well in western culture rather than Asian culture.

Motivation is highly required for successful performances. Autonomy – supportive motivation style can be recognized as one of the most effective factor to motivate students. Autonomy-supportive teachers always try to understand welcome the feelings, emotions, thoughts and their perspectives and try to develop the person internally. On the other hand, always try to encourage them without forcing to achieve goals. No controlling in nature and using informational language. Teachers those who have autonomy-supportive characteristics have higher level of patience until the students are coming to right path. This type of style associate with intrinsic motivations (Jang et al. 2010). However, this autonomy supportive motivational style will be matched well to western countries than Asian culture.

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    1. Outline the concept of “Intrinsic motivation”

Intrinsic motivation can be recognized as some kind of internal reward system. This explains that people are motivating by doing what they can entertain themselves. This directly links with their inner life. For example, if a person willing to take challenges, challenges make him motivated to do the activities.

According to self-determination theory which was developed by Deci & Ryan(1975), basically , person needs to satisfy three psychological needs in order to achieve his inner satisfaction. Those people want to become competent by enhancing knowledge, skills and abilities, willing to have relationships and recognition and require the power of controlling.

    1. Imagine if you are a school principal, how you are going to improve your teams intrinsic motivation in achieving and delivering higher level of teaching and learning

School principals play a critical role as they have to ensure the good learning environment. So that the teachers have to play an important role in this. In order to achieve higher performance on teaching and learning, the team should be motivated. Intrinsic motivation can be recognized as a good factor to develop and maintain the performance of the team. According to Demir(2001), intrinsic motivation is more effective than extrinsic motivation when motivating school teachers.

In order to improve this intrinsic motivation of teachers, principle should create a calm and aesthetic playground for them (Demir, 2001). Their participation on decision making should be highly appreciated. In additions, maximum utilization of knowledge and skills, give challenging roles to play by allocating more responsibilities, career development opportunities, opportunity for creativity, independency. However, generally, they will be able to gain social recognition by being a teacher. Principal should analyze and should be aware on these entire things regarding his team and should facilitate them to move on.

    1. Outline the concept of “Extrinsic motivation”

In general, extrinsic motivation are receiving from outside. People are extrinsically motivated by the things they will be able to have after completing such works. Extrinsic motivation can be defined as the process of receiving external rewards after some actions. For example, best employee award, incentives, salary increments, promotions, leave benefits etc. However, someone can use this extrinsic motivation in a negative way as well as positive. For example, people can be motivated by giving punishments, demotions, creating a fear towards job security etc. but it can be negatively affected to the individual’s emotions.

    1. If you are appointed as the quality officer in your school, how you are going to use Extrinsic motivation strategies in school environment

One of the key objectives of a school is to create person not only educated but also develop a person as whole. In order to success in all areas both teachers and students should work hard. By giving rewards, it is possible to keep this hard working continuously and develop up to higher level. In this extrinsic motivation, it is saying that someone should complete the given task to the required standard to have something as a benefit. On the other hand it simply says if you want this you should do that one. For example, if you want to have the best student’s trophy, you are required to show your best performance in education as well as extraordinary activities.

On this way, in order to enhance quality of the school, it can be introduced a reward system for both teachers and students by grading them according to their performances. School can create and maintain a reward schedule. For example, best student award, give financial rewards for top ten performances in every grade, promotions as sectional heads for best teachers etc.

  1. (T 05)
    1. Outline the term “Corrective motivation

The concept corrective motivation can be recognized as the reactive strategy any it is based on individual’s current performance and his ideal performance. Purpose of this corrective motivation is to identify the difference between current performance and ideal performance and in order to correct the performance individuals should motivate by giving intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.

    1. Analyze why effective goals are those which difficult and specific

Goal can be defined as the thing that an individual tries to achieve. Level of performance of an individual can be determined by analyzing how effectively he is achieving his goals. Basically the difficult and specific goals help to increase the individual performances that other goals. On the other hand it helps to identify poor performances.

Source: Reeve(2015)

According to Reeve (2015), difficult goals lead individuals to work hard by utilizing their maximum effort as well. On the other hand, it increases the persistence and people are working long hours. Specific goals help to increase and keep the attention of the individuals and they are focusing on works in order to achieve those goals effectively. When the goals are specific, they follow proper plan because those goals should be achieve smartly and the individuals those who work according to smart plan are also smart. Finally it can be concluded that difficult and specific goal are effective and it will lead to enhance the performances.

    1. Prepare a short essay on why goals encourage people to cheat

In general, Individuals will be able to gain successes by setting goals. Goals help them the keep their focus on the right path and it is some kind of an encouragement to work hard. On the other hand, individuals may have intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in order to achieve those goals effectively and efficiently. Although goals positively impacted on performance, there is also a dark side.

Some individuals try to achieve goals unethically especially when giving rewards. Purpose of having rewards individuals try cheat on goals. Individuals are cheating because they are motivated to reach the goal however. Therefore without achieving the goal they may try to have rewards by saying reasons to justify why they couldn’t achieve them. There is a relationship between goals and unethical behavior of individuals.

    1. Explain the main phases in the cyclical model of self-regulation

Self-regulation can be defined as the process of setting goals and engage in behaviors and cognitive process in order to attain goals. This self-regulation can be discussed under three phases.

Image result for self regulation phases

Forethought Phase

In this forethought phase, it is expecting to setting goals and identifies how they are going to attain. Basically it should be decide that when the goals are going to achieve, what king of things they should do to achieve them effectively and especially discuss about the starting point and the limitations. On the other hand, it should pay high concern on motivation especially motivation factors should be clearly defined.

Performance Phase

In this phase, it is expecting to evaluate the performance. Basically check whether the goals are achieving as per the plan set under forethought phase. Here it is required to answer following questions.

  • Are individuals achieving their goals as they wish?
  • Are the cheating?
  • Are they working according to the time frame?
  • What are the thing they are doing to encourage themselves to achieve goals?

Key purpose of analyzing performance is to identify the issues when attaining goals.

Self-reflection phase

As the final stage, it is expecting to analyze the overall achievements. By comparing the goals and the actual achievements, it will be able to identify how far individuals able to achieve expected goals. Here it should be considered that they worked according to the plan, the allocated time, was it enough or need more time and the issues they faced.

  1. (T 06)
    1. Compare and Contrast between efficacy expectation and outcome expectation.

Image result for Compare and Contrast between efficacy expectation and outcome expectation.

Basically, there are two types of expectancies such as efficacy expectations and outcome expectations. Under efficacy expectations, it is trying to identify the possibility of performing particular task or set of actions. For example “can I do it?”. Outcome expectation is thinking about what is going to happen next, once perform a particular task. For example “will it work?”

    1. Outline the term Self-efficacy and research on main sources of Self efficacy

Bandura (2004) explained that the self-efficacy is a belief of an individual about his ability on achieving a specific task. He further explained that those beliefs come with the way of his thinking, feeling and behaving. Self-efficacy can be described under four main sources. https://wikispaces.psu.edu/download/attachments/344261344/Self%20Efficacy%20Sources.jpg?version=1&modificationDate=1481739198000&api=v2

Enactive Mastery

Enactive Mastery can be recognized as the most influential factor when develop self-efficacy. Bandura revealed that when a person performs successfully it will lead to strengthen the self-efficacy and once they failed to perform the particular task it will weak the self-efficacy.

Vicarious Experience

This is explaining that one’s self-efficacy can develop by observing the performance of similar person. Individuals can develop their beliefs by seeing how a particular person success in achieving task.

Verbal Persuasion

This is some kind of a verbal encouragement. It is said that the verbal encouragement can enhance someone’s self-efficacy. On the other hand the discouragements lead to reduce the self-efficacy.

Physiological Arousal

This describes perception of a person regarding his physiological situation. Physical readiness, emotions and stress directly impact on performing a particular task. For example, when a person is going to perform a particular task but he physically he doesn’t have the capability of doing that. This will lead to lower the self-efficacy.

    1. Assess on how as an educator or teacher can help him / her with such a feelings of hopelessness. As he / she still can progress the journey in his / her studies.

According to the given situation, it is said that he is good student as well as athletic hero. Once he injured and became disabling he may feel helpless and hopeless. As a teacher, first he should understand the feelings and the situation of the student. Gradually the teacher should be able to create a new world for him by showing new directions and new roads. Although he can’t perform as an athlete again, the teacher can encourage him to become a coach. He can entertain the life by creating good athletes. He can share his knowledge and experience. On the other hand, as he is a good student, teacher can encourage him to move on with studies too.

  1. Conclusion

Motivation can be recognized as one of the most important factor when determining the performances. Every person cannot be motivated in a same way. Before motivate a person, one’s should have a clear understanding about his or her needs and wants. Some people can be motivated by giving intrinsic reward while others requires extrinsic rewards.

 

Reference

Brophy, J., 2010. Motivating students to learn. New York: NY: Routledge.

E.Reeve, 2015. Motivation and Emotions.

Hoy, W.K. & Miskel, C.G., 1982. Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice, 2nd edition. New York: Random House.

Mathis, R.L. & Jackson, J., 1982. Personnel- Contemporary Perspectives and Applications. New York: West publishing.

Mehta, V., 2015. Key Differences Between Evening and Morning People. [Online] Available at: www.psychologytoday.com.

Philips, M.L., 2009. Of owls, larks and alarm clocks. Nature 458.

Staw, B.M., 1983. Job attitude as a stable individual characteristic. Sch. Bus. Adm., Univ. Calif. , Berkeley: Unpublished manuscript.