1. Introduction

Leadership and administration abilities and styles have been the most begging to be proven wrong point in late history. Numerous individuals have concocted new speculations about leadership styles and abilities. There are numerous books composed on this subject however none of them has come to a typical style. The styles rely upon the circumstance display around then. So for the great leaders/supervisor it is critical to display distinctive styles for various circumstances. Key Management is likewise a vital segment of any firm. So subsequent to characterizing a system for an association, the leader/director should find a way to guarantee that the general working of the association is going as per the methodology. A decent pioneer/supervisor ought to have the capacity to adapt to the future needs of the associations and should remember the effect of specific systems on associations in long haul.

This will report discuss the importance of leadership in order to successful implementation of strategic decision. This report starts with discussing the relationship between leadership and strategic management by taking the organization Ceylon Leather Products PLC into consideration. Ceylon Leather Products PLC is one of the leading leather products manufactures in Sri Lanka which coming to the market by supplying mainly leather foot wears and leather accessories. Their main products are ladies and gents footwear, school shoes, leather bags, belts etc.

  1. The Relationship between Strategic Management and Leadership
    1. The link between Strategic Management and Leadership

Main objective of any business organization is achieving successes by defeating its competitors. In order to defeat competitors, organization needs strategies. Strategy is a set of actions which an organization uses to achieve its objectives (Barratt & Mottershead, 2000). On the other words, it’s a clearly defined road map for an organization (Thompson et al., 2007). Strategic management can be recognized as the process of formulating, implementing, and evaluating strategies which are enabling organizations to achieve its objectives successfully. Firstly, the organizations need to identify and define its future. For example its vision and mission. Before formulating strategies to reach its vision organization should have a clear understanding about its current situation. Strategic decisions are taking to fill the gap between this current position and desired position.

Although an organization has successful strategic plan, it won’t success if there is no proper leadership. On the words strategic management process will not complete without leadership. Strategic management and leadership are two different unique concepts but when it comes to the organizational context, both concepts are interdependent.

The most important and valuable resource of an organization is its workforce. The organization needs to manage and utilize this workforce effectively. So that the organization needs effective leadership to direct them toward the achieving of goals.

Leadership can be defined as the process of influencing and motivating individuals to achieve organizational goals and objectives. According to the view of Marcousé (2008), leadership has the ability of enhance performance of employees up the desired standard. So that it is said that the good leadership sustain the long term success of the organization.

    1. Impact of Management and Leadership Styles on Strategic Decisions

The Wheelen & Hunger (2001) highlighted that the organization those who practice the concept strategic management are performing well than other competitors those who are not aware on this concept. Strategic management facilitates the organizations for making strategies according to the changing environment. Environmental changes make opportunities and threats for the organizations. So that the strategic decisions of an organization should be change otherwise it is difficult to survive or thinking about a growth.

According to Kotter(1990), management is responsible for planning, implementing and controlling of strategies and the leader is maintaining and directing employees toward the achievement of goals by following the strategic planning. Other than that leader should coordinate, motivate, building moral of the employees in order to increase the performances. This leadership and management impact on strategic decision because success or failure of a right decision depends on how effective an organization selects a right leader. Basically there are five key leadership styles which an organization can adopt (Richard & Katherine, 2005)

Image result for Autocratic leadership Bureaucratic leadership Charismatic leadership Democratic leadership Laissez-faire leadership

Autocratic Leadership

According to this leadership style, leader is the one who makes decisions and decide when, what and how to do things and employees are required to follow. According to Jenkins and Hamman (2001), autocratic leadership style is effective, at the time when an organization needs to make quick decisions but, the employees may not be happy with the feeling of not appreciating their ideas. On the other hand, this type of leaders is task-oriented in nature.

Bureaucratic Leadership

The people those who adapt this kind of leadership style are paying high concern on following concepts, theories, processes and procedures strictly.

Democratic Leadership

Democratic leaders appreciate the ideas of their followers when they are making decisions. This is kind of a shared decision making. Through this the organization will be able to motivate employees and increase their loyalty and commitment. However, employees under democratic leaders are happy and motivated. Although its seems as a good leadership style, may not effective in every time because it will lead to slow the decision making processes and ultimately it may create a cost to the organization (Mottershead, 2000).

Laissez-Faire

Laissez-faire leadership style can practice, when the organization has skilled and knowledgeable employees. Leader allows followers to make necessary decision but the leader responsible for all the decisions taken by his followers (Marcousé,2008).

Charismatic Leadership

Charismatic leaders are attractive in nature. These types of leaders are using their personal traits to motivate followers and win their trust. Charismatic leadership style is successful whenever the organization needs to build and enhance the moral of the employees (Whitcomb, 2000).

These leadership styles can make a certain impact on strategic decision making of the organization.

    1. How leadership styles can be adapted to different situations?

There is no one best leadership style which is suitable for every situation. If an organization wants to achieve success, leadership style should be changed according to the situation Marcousé (2008).

Ceylon Leather Products is always trying to create a good working environment for its employees. By following democratic leadership style, top management always encourages its employees on participating in decision making. Whenever they found issues in production or any other operation, they are encouraging employees to find a better solution because the top management believes that they may have good knowledge on the processes which comes with their working experience. This will result to win the loyalty of employees once they feel them as the part of the organization.

However, this is not always practical once they are in rush in completing orders. Sometimes, with the limited time the management should have to take quick decisions.

As another example, Ceylon Leather Products introduced Lean management system with the purpose of taking cost advantages by eliminating wastage. This new concept led to change the culture, processes and the organization as a whole. However employees refused to accept this new change because of the fear of adapting. Top management of the organization decided to implement this concept without considering ideas of employees and asked them to work accordingly. However, gradually the employees adapted to the changes and the decision is working well.

On this way, organizations need to change the leadership style according to the situation otherwise the organization will fail.

  1. Management and Leadership theory to support organizational direction.
    1. Impact that selected theories of management and leadership have on organizational strategy

Success of an organization is depending how effectively they are using strategies. Although an organization formulate competitive strategies, they may not effective without proper management and leadership. So it can say that leadership and management theories are equally important as strategy formulation, execution and control. There are many different management and leadership theories which a company can adopt such as behavioral theory, situational theory, contingency theory, functional theory, transactional theory, transformational theory etc.

This report is discussing about two leadership theories and their impacts on organizational strategies.

Transactional Leadership Theory

Under this leadership theory employees are required to perform as per willingness and the directions of the leaders. Rewards and punishments can be recognized as the key factors of this transactional leadership style. Leaders influence employees to achieve the tasks set by the management. Rewards will be given for good performers and the employees those who fail to reach the targets will be punished. This type of leadership style is practical when the tasks and problems are clearly identified. Employees should follow the directions given by the leaders and the new ideas of the followers will not be appreciated (Bass, 1985).

As Ceylon Leather Products is a leather products organization, most of their production operations are follow targets. Employees are required to achieve daily targets and those who reach the target will be rewarded by financial and non-financial rewards such as incentives, gifts etc. Poor performers will be punished through salary deductions, demotions etc.

Transformational Leadership Theory

The concept, transformational leadership, firstly introduced by Macgregor through his book “leadership”. However, according to him, transformational leadership can be recognized as a relationship of shared incitement and elevation that proselytes follower into a leader and may change over leader into moral specialists”. He likewise recognized that the transformational leadership happens when at least one people draw in with others such that leaders and followers raise each other to more elevated amounts of inspiration and ethical quality.

The base of this transformational leadership theory is charismatic leadership where the leader is using his personal characteristics such as personality to influence followers. This kind of leaders has their personal traits, vision, abilities etc.

This theory can affect the performance of organizational strategies. On the off chance that the organization is following a cost-leadership strategy, at that point, it can’t bear the cost of high turnover rate since it brings about cost to train the worker. As employees are a valuable resource to an organization, it is necessary to retain them. Consequently, a leader inspires followers to perform well; he turns into a persuasive inspiration for the workers which diminish the turnover rate (Jiang, 2002).

While Ceylon Leather Products follows transactional leadership in order to make success some of their strategies, they are using this transformational leadership style to motivate and develop a person as a whole by encouraging them to improve their creative ideas.

    1. Create a leadership strategy that supports organizational direction

The strategy is tied in with doing planning for the future by taking competition and environmental changes into consideration. In order to facilitate the organization to achieve its future goals, it requires a decent and solid leader to lead the organization into the future, in this way; a great leader assumes an imperative part towards the future course of the organization. Generally, it can be identified that Ceylon Leather Products is utilizing distinctive leadership theories in various circumstances. This is the leadership technique which helps them to drive their organization into success.

According to Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership theory, basically there are four leadership styles can be identified. Application of these leadership styles based on the situation and the behavior of the employees. The four leadership styles that are introduced in this approach are telling, selling, participating, and delegating. Beginning with telling, this is the most direct type of leadership. The leader of the gathering essentially instructs every part, and how they might want them to do it.

The next leadership style, selling, is unified with somewhat more space for a coordinated effort. While the colleagues are as yet coordinated by the leader, the leader will probably connect with the colleagues en route. The ‘selling’ title originates from the possibility that the leader may need to persuade some regarding the colleagues to take after his or her lead and get things done particularly.

Participating is where the pioneer tries to fabricate associations with those in the group – extremely winding up some portion of the group. This is a significant takeoff from the telling style, as the leader will mix in more completely with the individuals who are functioning as a major aspect of the group. The leader won’t settle on the greater part of the choices in this style, maybe conceding at specific focuses on individuals from the group with more understanding or information in a given zone.

The final leadership style is delegating. It speaks to the leader passing on the vast majority of the obligations regarding a given venture or assignment to different individuals from the group. This style is something that pioneers of experienced groups will frequently use, since the representatives that are being driven may not require much in the method for heading now in their professions.

  1. Be able to assess leadership requirements
    1. Use appropriate methods to review current leadership requirements

A leader is the one who drives the group in a powerful way and inspires them keeping in mind the end goal to get the goal. Adherents assume an essential part of a great leadership. In the past, as traits theory proposes that there are sure characteristics and qualities which make a leader. Be that as it may, in this cutting edge time, leaders need to survey present and future necessities. The leader must need to watch out for the non-specific difficulties which are portrayed underneath.

There are specific strategies accessible for assessing the requirements of leadership. Some of the methods can be identified as follows.

Blake and Moulton’s Managerial matrix:

Blake and Moulton’s Managerial matrix is one of the few strategies accessible for assessing leadership prerequisites (Mullins, 2005). As indicated by this technique, the management and leadership styles are investigated based on two principle rules.

– Concern on production

– Concern on human

In the main case, Manage and leaders all its vitality in the achieving of undertakings in given time. This is appeared along the level pivot on the framework. While in the second case, workers and their needs are given significance. Also, this is spoken to along the vertical pivot of the lattice. Barratt and Mottershead (2000) have portrayed this lattice as a matrix of leadership styles.

Image result for managerial grid

The numbers inside the matrix show the level of concern of the leaders. For instance; administrators with a rating of (9,1) hone autocratic style since they indicate a low concern for the workers. Then again, a rating of (1,9) delineates the conduct of a democratic supervisor. It is additionally alluded as “country club” administration by a few creators. As indicated by the exploration and discoveries, the leadership style of Ceylon Leather Products, based on Blake and Moulton’s leadership framework, ought to be evaluated as (9,1) team management.

MBO (Management by Objective)

Another basic way to deal with looking into administration and leadership styles is management by objectives usually known as MBO. As indicated by Mullins (2005), MBO is an arrangement of administration which is gone for relating the authoritative objectives to singular exhibitions and improvement through the contribution of all levels of administration. While Morris (1999), is of the view that the best director should set a general goal, and ought to pass on it to the lower administration for finishing. MBO is conceivably an appealing framework. It gives a chance to staff to acknowledge more prominent duty and to make a larger amount of individual commitment.

    1. Plan for the development of future situations requiring leadership

In future, there is the huge part of honing leadership and its improvement. Because of the specific changes, there will be an impact on leadership advancement. Abilities of authority will be expanded and there will be the need to create and builds new strategies to deal with globalization. It should do the course of action on expectations and the part of the leader will be basic. As innovation is been growing every day and at the time it extending it making new difficulties for the leadership. So leader should ready to make the arrangement to deal with the emergencies and much educational to receive the new innovation.

E-leadership will turn out to be so prominent in nowadays in which people groups are overseen through messages and restrictions as Facebook is the case of e-leadership. There is a major need to create and get new authority procedure this field since it is never been anything but difficult to deal with the general population through the web. The part of leadership ought to be as they should need to realize that how the innovation will be utilized as a part of powerful leadership improvement.

The future patterns noted reflect some degree a reaction to the changing setting of authority may be the most grounded weight confronting administration expert, later on, might be to show a return on investment. This definition demonstrates the significance of speculation and target that there will be a weight in circumstances for the initiative to meet their goal of showing a return on their venture.

  1. Be able to plan the development of leadership skills
    1. Plan the development of leadership skills for a specific requirement

There are definite abilities that each leader ought to have. Genuine leaders have these abilities in their qualities and others embrace them over the span of their life. In any case, one thing is sure that these aptitudes are available in every considerable leader in the world. The ownership of these characteristics isn’t sufficient; a great leader ought to have the capacity to build up these aptitudes and to have the capacity to apply them as per the prerequisite. A decent leader has the correct aptitudes and utilizations them in the conduct that best suits the present circumstance.

The principle expertise of leaders is the ability of influence. A decent leader dependably utilizes its impact on its supporters to acquire the best outcomes. Motivation can acquire tremendous changes associations. So great leaders ought to dependably attempt to create and improve its impact by engaging its workers. So this expertise can be created without anyone else’s input help by gaining from botches. A decent pioneer ought to have great relational abilities. He ought to have the capacity to discuss effortlessly with his colleagues.

Great leaders ought to dependably be versatile to change. He ought to have a dream and he should endeavor to present current methods for completing things. He ought to urge his staff to utilize new innovation and new systems for their standard work. He ought to be certain and decided in his vision. So he ought to organize courses and workshops to pass on his vision to his devotees.

Great leaders ought to be impartial; he ought to have the capacity to oversee assorted variety inside an association. He ought to be a good example for every one of the representatives from any beginning. He ought to be dependable and genuine. It’s just through his own reliability that he can keep up the train in the association. A decent pioneer ought to have the capacity to convey the strategy and directions of the association to each and every representative.

Great leaders ought to have great coordination abilities for keeping up the respectability of various divisions of the association. Train ought to be the primary concern for leaders and there ought to be no reason for it. Since it is the primary factor that can change the destiny of the association. A decent pioneer ought to be straightforward and well-wisher of its kin. He should adhere to his duties and guarantees. A pioneer ought to be a decent audience; it encourages him in beating the shortcomings of the association and some of the time allows him to snatch some new thoughts also.

    1. Report on the usefulness of methods used to plan the development of leadership skills

Great leadership shows great human characteristics where they can accomplish their objectives. Training can be recognized as a valuable technique to build up the abilities of leaders. There are distinctive instructional courses which are extremely useful with a specific end goal to build up the abilities. For instance, Ceylon Leather Products give the chance to its workers to get the further train of leadership if the individual is chosen for the required activity. It offers a man to get the transporter break and understudy credit so he can either go to college to teach himself and does some course like the ace in business administrations.

Diverse Leadership instructional courses are acquainted with upgrading the abilities. In nowadays broadly system which is been utilized is to gain from the experience. The experience is been utilized to deal with the different administration abilities. At the point when individuals get the criticism from others, they take in more through input workshop, assignments, and the pivot of occupations, tutoring, instructing and outside learning programs.

Every one of these strategies are exceptionally helpful to design the advancement of initiative abilities. Courses and workshops are exceptionally useful in understanding the perspective of other individuals. Instructional classes help in comprehension and defeating new difficulties. These courses help associations to actualize powerful methods for completing things. They likewise help in making a learning situation in an association. Gatherings ought to be orchestrated frequently; this will help a pioneer in building up his correspondence and coordination abilities. Another essential technique is traded visits. These are extremely useful in creating initiative aptitudes. These visits might be between various segments of a similar association or between various associations. These are exceptionally useful in building up the initiative ability of overseeing decent variety.

  1. Conclusion

This report clarified the connection between leadership and the strategic management. Leadership can be recognized as the craft of completing things by influencing. On the other hand, leadership is the investigation of completing things by the workers. The leader is conceived and the authority characteristics are in their qualities. Anybody can turn into a great leader by receiving certain abilities and systems and applying them in their day to day life. There are diverse styles of initiative. No single leadership style is best for each circumstance. These styles have a certain effect on the working and advance of the association. For decent leaders, all styles ought to be embraced and connected by the circumstance close by. There are sure speculations about leadership like classical school theory, bureaucracy, contingency and contemporary speculations and so forth. These all characterize commonplace styles of authority in various circumstances.

Reference

Barratt & Mottershead, 2000. Business Studies. Italy: G. Cannale & C. S. p. A Borgano T.

David, H. & Arthur, J., 2001. GCSE Business Studies A for AQA. Hodder Education.

Kotter, J., 1990. Force For Change: How Leadership Differs from Management. New York: Free Press.

Marcousé, S.a.G., 2008. Business Studies for A Level. Third edition ed. Italy: Hodder Education.

Richard, H. & Katherine, C.B., 2005. Becoming a strategic leader. United States: Jossey-Bass.

Schermerhorn, H.O., 2002. Organizational Behavior. 7th ed. USA: John Wiley and Son.

Thompson, Strickland & Gamble, 2007. Crafting and Executing Strategy. Irwin: McGraw-Hill.

Wheelen, T.L. & Hunger, J.D., 2001. Strategic Management and Business Policy:. United States : Pearson.