The aim of this report is to investigate the project management theories and application of them. Project management theories cover the nine areas. This document discusses project scope management, project quality management, project risk management, project communication management.
To find out the related theories and practical scenario, the author refers the project management book.
For this study, a project was selected from the civil engineering industry. Quality, time and cost are main factors influence to the success of the project. Project management focuses on the final product or service of the project. The project manager is the person who drives the project success.
The construction industry is different than other industry. Civil engineering projects are complex in nature. Larger workforce gives their service in civil engineering site. Also, use various kinds of materials and equipment. Therefore they need to handle the activities very effectively and efficiently. Project management concepts help to handle the activities very smoothly.
Table of Contents
Project management is a science of how to manage a different kind of projects parallel. Project management focuses on the final product or service of the project. Project management mainly focuses on identifying the requirements, establishes goals and communicates with the different stakeholders to ensure the achievement. The main function of the organization is managing their organizational function. The good project manager can effectively handle the functions of the organization. Project management helps to oversee the projects from beginning to completion. The value of the project decides by delivery of the final product on time and within the agreed budget. Continuous and regular practices help someone to understand the project management concepts very well.
Main objectives of the project management eliminate the project risk, understanding the project objectives and milestone. Formulation the best strategy, to optimize the use of available resources, and developing a framework for monitoring and controlling the project, are also some of the objectives of the project management.
For this study, an organization was selected from the civil engineering industry. According to the Sri Lankan standards for civil engineering, this company is registered and operated under the ICTAD level 3. This organization focuses its business on constructing luxury, semi-luxury villas, multi-story commercial buildings, and apartments. A semi luxury apartment project was selected for this analyze.
A feasibility study is used to analyze the viability of an idea. The objectives of the feasibility study are to measure the technical and legally feasibility of the project. Decision-making in the feasibility study always concerns the economic feasibility. Based on the feasibility study, the owner can identify whether the project is worth to invest or not. Each project is evaluated based on the cost that allocates on the project and the benefits that can deliver on the design. A feasibility study is used to evaluate the potential success of the project. Feasibility study covers five areas such as technical feasibility, economic feasibility, legal feasibility, operational feasibility, and scheduling feasibility (Anon, 2011). Key benefits of the project feasibility study are; find out the alternatives, identify the reasons to undertake the projects, enhance the success rate, support to decision-making on the project.
The objectives of doing, a feasibility study in this project to reduce the risk of flooding. And also to find out the economic damage can happen by flooding. Identify the cost associated with the project decide the time duration of the project are the major areas that cover under the feasibility study in this project. In any kind of construction projects need to design all the infrastructure facilities. Plan the water, electricity and other necessary facilities for the new development are other areas that cover under this feasibility study.
Technical Feasibility: Technical feasibility discusses the technical requirement of the proposed project. Also, compares the technical capability of the organization with the project requirement. The project will be accepted when internal technical capability can satisfy the requirement of the project. Technical feasibility helps to find out that whether the company wants to upgrade or add any technical resources. This project is a semi-luxury apartment with 10 houses. The first step of the technical feasibility is surveying and mapping of the land. Then, plan the building according to the environmental operating principle. Special approval needs to have in building constructions industry. Therefore, necessary documents are submitted for getting the special authorization. For this project, an organization has selected the land in Colombo district. The land located in high commercializes area. All the facilities, like fuel and transportation, can access the site without any delay (Anon, 2008).
Economic Feasibility: Economic feasibility is a way to identifying the financial benefits and cost associated with the project. Financial will be arranged by the bank loan and settle the bank loan by selling the houses. Based on the previous projects company has recognized that their apartment has high demand in the market. They identify that they can recover the invested money before handover the project to the clients. All the necessary equipment is with the organization. So, no need to hire the required equipment from outside suppliers.
Operational feasibility: Operational feasibility is discussing the available human resources for the project, available benefits, labor objection, and manpower problem to the project.
Legal feasibility: A contract between suppliers and employees is discussed in the legal feasibility. Most of the construction company’s recruit the employee for one year period. If higher management satisfies with the employee only, they extend the contract for another year. Also, focuses on all the legal aspects of constructing an apartment and the proprietor of the houses in the apartment.
Scheduling Feasibility: Value of the project is depending on the delivery time of the final product. So in the scheduling feasibility, focus on estimates the duration of the project. And also discusses how reasonable to hand over the project to the planned date. Some project deadlines are very strict. Therefore, the project team needs to analyze that deadline is mandatory or desirable. This apartment project’s deadline is mandatory.
The Scope of work (SOW) is a formal document. SOW describes the activities, deliverables, timeline, milestone, pricing of a project. In construction projects have to deal with the external parties. SOW gives a clear picture to both customer and vendor about the requirement of the project.
Projects managers work for creating scope of work. They have to face challenges when creating SOW. Reasons are complex, risk and need considerable time.
Purpose and objectives
Semi-luxury apartment project builds semi-luxury apartment. The apartment should be accessed easy, security and comfortable to the clients. Always their expectation and requirement need to be satisfied.
Scope of Work
Company CVB will plan the apartment according to industrial standard. The Organization always follows the quality standards.
Company CVB will deliver the semi-luxury housing project to all their clients on 11/3/2017. A Milestone of the project is a complete basement, complete substructure. Then start with superstructure. Under the superstructure complete the ground floor to first-floor work, first-floor to second-floor work, external work. The final stage of the project is handover the completed apartment to the clients. When handover the project completed work needs to be according to the design and quality plan.
- Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Work breakdown structure (WBS) use to breaking down the project into small deliverable phases (Anon, n.d.). This is a graphical method. By making work breakdown structure organization and management can break down the complex project into more manageable sections. Therefore the company can develop the schedule, cost, and risk very accurately. WBS also helps to allocate fund and resources effectively. The organization always needs to explain project scope to stakeholders. The project can effectively describe by using WBS.
Basically, this semi-luxury apartment project can divide into two sections call Substructure and superstructure. Substructure defines the works which do under the earth. The Superstructure defines the work above the basement. Above mention, a diagram shows the main duties come under the each section.
Always constructions projects depend on the cost, Time and quality. High quality directs the project success. Quality needs to maintain all the phases of the project. Minimal defects are a symbol of quality.
Quality management plan describes the overall policies; procedures are fit according to the contract drawings and specification. This plan also consists of quality review responsibilities and activities, quality measures (Anon, 2008). ISO 9001 standard is using to maintain the quality of the construction work. Quality management plan describes how quality will be managed throughout the project lifecycle. Project management always focuses on continuous process improvement.
Quality Assurance and quality control are the two sections discuss in Quality management. Quality Assurance (QA) covers activities in design, development, production, installation and documentation. Quality control (QC) ensure product or service an accord to requirement. Quality control compares the obtained result with the planned result. If the result is difference take necessary actions to correct the difference. One method of quality control is continuous inspections in construction works. A construction company should reduce the cost associated with low quality. Both internal and external control can help to maintain quality according to standards. Quality management problems in a construction project can be solved using tools like fishbone diagram, Pareto analysis, brainstorming session.
A quality management plan for the Semi-luxury apartment-Colombo creates for the delivery quality product upon the project conclusion. The purpose of the plan is;
- Planned quality.
- Describe how quality will be managed.
- Point out quality assurance activities.
- Point out quality control activities.
- Point out acceptable quality standards.
Purpose and Objectives
The purpose of the Semi-luxury apartment in Colombo quality management plan is to generate the goals, procedures, processes and responsibilities. Generating goals and processes helps to implement effective quality management functions in the project. This quality plan describes how project team use project quality practices with the Semi-luxury apartment-Colombo.
Objectives for the Semi-luxury Apartment-Colombo Project
- Describes the quality activities
- Explain how quality will be maintained
- Define quality assurance (QA) activities.
- Define quality control (QC) activities
- Define quality standards
- Define roles and responsibilities in form of quality management
|Mr. XYZ||Project Manager||Implementation quality management plan|
|Mr. ABC||Quality Assurance Engineer||Quality assurance of the construction and project design.|
|Mr. DDA||Site Manager||Quality control inspection and testing for site work|
|Mr. RTY||Engineer||Complete all the issues and handover quality product. Maintain quality during the project.|
|Mr. CVB||Supervisor||Testing all the materials on the project|
|Mr.BBS||Purchasing Officer||Purchase all the materials according to define quality standards.|
Construction projects are very complex in nature. The project has to deal with various types of stakeholders. All the organization plans the project very well. But when processing the project can arise various types of problems and issues. “No construction project is risk-free”. The project owner can minimize, share, manage, transferred or accept the risk. No one can ignore the risk. Project risk management addresses different areas of the project (Jennifer. and Stellman., 2009). As an example scope and change control, cost management, human resource management etc. risk management plan can use to identify the potential problems that may trouble to the project.
A risk is an uncertain event or condition that may affect the project. The risk is always not a negative impact. Sometimes come as a positive impact to the project. This positive impact calls opportunities. Risks are the event not happened yet. Before start the project, project team plan for the things that can arise in the future. There are four basic methods to handle the risk. They avoid, mitigation, transfer and accept.
Risk avoid means prevent the uncertain event happening in the project. Risk mitigation is project team cannot avoid the risk. But they take some actions and minimize the damage. Construction workplace is highly turbulent and complex. The workplace has to deal various kinds of accidents. Under the risk transfer organization buys insurance. Then organization can transfer the risk to the third part. If an organization cannot avoid the risk or minimize the impact project team has to accept the risk.
The project semi-luxury apartment identifies the risk based on past project experience. Then organization creates a checklist for the current project. To identify the potential risk company got the support of project team and industrial experts. By using risk breakdown structure we can easily identify and handle the risk. First, identifies the major risk categories. The major risk of the project semi-luxury apartment is technical, External and organizational risks.
Risk management process comes up with several steps. Risk management planning, risk identification, risk assessment, risk handling and control actions are the steps of risk management.
- Semi-luxury Project Apartment – Risk Management Plan
Purpose of Risk Management Plan
A risk is an event or condition that can impact on project’s objectives. Risk can be the positive or negative effect on a project. Risk management is a process of identifying, assessing, monitoring and reporting risks. This risk management plan describes how risk associated with the semi-luxury housing apartment.
Risk Breakdown Structure
Semi-luxury apartment Project
Sub Contractor Problem
According to the above risk breakdown structure project identifies two types of risks. One is technical issues and another one is an external risk. Project team or owner cannot avoid the weather problem. Therefore they have to accept it. What project team can do is, plan the work necessarily. In rainy days, cannot do the painting work. Therefore they can focus on interior finishing. Due to various reasons, subcontractor terminates their work suddenly. If project management has contact to the contractor, he can recruit new contractor. This solution call risk avoids. Construction site uses many equipment and machines. So, most of the accidents are happen in construction workplace. Though it follows many safety methods, still risk is there. As a solution for this, an organization can buy insurance for the construction site. This method calls risk transfer. Most of the construction companies insurance their employees also. Such a plan helps to the organization to look after their employees and their family in an accident.
Quality issues, skill labor, and machinery problems can category as technical risks. In semi-luxury apartment needs to maintain the quality as defined in the design. Floor tile color, wall tile color, painting wants to as in architectural design. All the levels, slabs, walls need to as per standards. Sometimes by mistaken labor can place the floor tile with the wrong color. We cannot avoid such a situation. Inspection from the beginning may help to avoid the impact. This is call risk mitigation. The project team cannot avoid the risk. But they can accept the risk with minimal impact to the project.
Construction workplace uses heavy machines. Technical issues of the machines will be affected by the progress of the site. The organization can rent necessary equipment from another company. This system is called risk transfer.
Communication management plan is to update all the stakeholders with the current condition of the project. Effective communication is the reason behind the success of most of the project (Jennifer. and Stellman., 2009). The project team should provide the information accurately in time to time. Different stakeholders need a different kind of information. Therefore project team needs to prepare the information for satisfying the needs of stakeholders.
In the project communication management focus on the customer, the final product, time and quality. When project has a proper communication management plan is one step closer to achieve overall objectives of the project. By creating communication management plan is easy to monitor the channels and content of the communication.
To be a good project manager he/ she need to have an effective communication method. The problem may arise in the communication is an interruption. Sometimes the wrong person can get the message, mistakes in passing the message. In communication, management discusses about five W’s. They are;
- What information need in the project.
- Who need the information and type of the information that required.
- What time information need to be send
- What type of format of information is used
- Who will send the information
A benefit of the project communication management projects can complete on time within given budget. Using project communication plan project manager can gather the all the stakeholders. This will easy to get the information soon.
Standard methods for the communication are either written or oral communication. The technological enhancement makes communication easy by using electronic mail and telephone conversation
After passing the message it is essential to know message received for another party. Communication management plan is not only discussed about the sending required information. But also discuss verify the message get by another end. Techniques used in the communication are a push, interactive and pull.
- Push – How project team sends the messages to stakeholder periodically.
- Interactive – How often have face to face discussion.
- Pull – In pull method, publish the information publically. When necessary stakeholders can access that information.
Purpose of Communication Management Plan
The objective of the communication management plan is to the success of the project by meeting the information requirement of the project stakeholders. Semi-luxury apartment project communication management plan discuss the method of information collection, screening, and distribution of the necessary information. The audience of the semi-luxury housing apartment is a project manager, project team, project owner and the suppliers.
|2/25/2017||Discuss and agree with the scope of work||Project owner||Contractor, Project Manager|
|3/6/2017||Discuss the design and setting out the area||Project Manager||Project team|
|Status Meeting||Project team suggests that face to face meeting periodically helps to sort out the issues.||Once a month||Meeting minute will be emailed to all stakeholders.|
|Budget Report||Cost plays a major role to the success of the project.||Weekly||Report will be emailed to all the stakeholders|
|Progress Report||The schedule also plays a very important role in the project. Weekly update the status of project||Weekly||The report will be emailed to all the stakeholders.|
|Daily Report||By analyzing the daily status project manager can ensure that work plan can achieve the targets||Weekly||The daily report will be emailed to project manager after work finish.|
Manpower is a major resource in construction workplace. A sudden visit to the site will help to analyze the situation of the site.
A project is a temporary effort to create unique product or service. Characteristics of a project is,
- Temporary (have define start and end time)
- Unique product, service or result will be delivery.
- Progressive effort
Examples of the project are developing a new product or service, constructing a building, acquiring new information system.
Project management consists of the functions such as initiating, planning, executive, controlling and handover the work. The project is closing when it hand over the final product to the client. Project management mainly focuses on identifying the requirements, establishes goals and communicates with the different stakeholders to ensure the achievement. Project management has nine disciplinary. They are;
- Project integration management
- Project scope management
- Project time management
- Project cost management
- Project quality management
- Project human resource and stakeholder management
- Project Communication management
- Project risk management
- Project procurement management
Organizations recruit the project manager to effectively manage the project. Project manager’s responsibility starts with initiate the project and end after handover the project to clients. Project manager responsible for managing stakeholders and keeping update them. The project manager is responsible for the communication of project issues. Also he needs to keep open honest communications with all the involved parties.
Main objectives of the project management eliminate the project risk, understanding the project objectives and milestone.
A feasibility study is used to analyze the viability of an idea. The objectives of the feasibility study are to measure the technical and legally feasibility of the project.
Based on the feasibility study, the owner can identify whether the project is worth to invest or not. Each project is evaluated based on the cost that allocates on the project and the benefits that can deliver on the design. A feasibility study is used to evaluate the potential success of the project. Feasibility study covers five areas such as technical feasibility, economic feasibility, legal feasibility, operational feasibility, and scheduling feasibility. Key benefits of the project feasibility study are; find out the alternatives, identify the reasons to undertake the projects, enhance the success rate, support to decision-making on the project.
The scope of work (SOW) is a formal document. SOW describes the activities, deliverables, timeline, milestone, pricing of a project. SOW helps to vendors and customers to make a clear picture about the project.
Work breakdown structure (WBS) use to breaking down the project into small deliverable phases. This is a graphical method. By making work breakdown structure organization and management can break down the complex project into more manageable sections. Therefore the company can develop the schedule, cost, and risk very accurately. WBS also helps to allocate fund and resources effectively.
Quality is very important factor affect to construction work. Lack of attention to quality means more reworks and defects. More reworks mean wasting time and cost. More rework affects to project deadlines. Focus on the quality project can spend the time to preventing them. Importance to know about project acceptable quality (define by the client). In quality management also focus on how to measure the quality in the project.
Quality Assurance and quality control are the two sections discuss in Quality management. Quality Assurance (QA) covers activities in design, development, production, installation and documentation. Quality control (QC) ensure product or service an accord to requirement. Quality control compares the obtained result with the planned result. If the result is difference take necessary actions to correct the difference. One method of quality control is continuous inspections in construction works.
A risk is an uncertain event or condition that may affect the project. The risk is always not a negative impact. Sometimes come as a positive impact to the project. This positive impact calls opportunities. Risks are the event not happened yet. Before start the project, project team plan for the things that can arise in the future. There are four basic methods to handle the risk. They are risk avoid, risk mitigation, risk transfer and risk accept. Risk avoid means prevent the uncertain event happening in the project. Risk mitigation is project team cannot avoid the risk. But they take some actions and minimize the damage. Construction workplace is highly turbulent and complex. Workplace has to deal various kinds of accidents. Under the risk transfer organization buys insurance. Then organization can transfer the risk to the third part. If an organization cannot avoid the risk or minimize the impact project team has to accept the risk. This calls risk accepts.
Project communication process is communication planning, information distribution, performance reporting and manages stakeholders. The project manager should identify the number of potential communication channels. Communication management planning includes following details.
- Stakeholder communication requirements
- Information to be communicated, including formats, content, and level of detail.
- The person responsible for communicating the information.
- Persons or group who will receive the information.
- Methods or technology used to convey the information, such as e-mail, memoranda, press releases
- Frequency of the communication
Emails, telephone and handwritten documents can use for communication medium.
E-mail automatically provides a permanent record for the sender and the receiver.
The telephone can use as an immediate interactive method of communicating.
Anon., 2011, 1. TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY 2. OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY 3. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY. [online] Available at: http://osarome.blogspot.com/2011/10/1-technical-feasibility-2-operational.html [Accessed 3 Mar. 2017].
Anon., 2008, 1st ed. [ebook] pp.12-25. Available at: http://www.sjafca.com/pdf/lsjr_pmp.pdf [Accessed 3 Mar. 2017].
Anon., 2008, 1st ed. [ebook] pp.8-15. Available at: https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/NR/rdonlyres/27A54B86-9825-4E81-9DEE-138823B4ED86/56842/QMPOutline0504091.pdf [Accessed 3 Mar. 2017].
Anon., n.d., Work breakdown structure. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Work_breakdown_structure [Accessed 4 Mar. 2017].
Jennifer., and Stellman., 2009., Head First PMP, Second Edition. 1st ed. [Place of publication not identified]: O’Reilly Media, Inc., pp.544-560.