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  1. Introduction

Organic agriculture is major used word in the world at present. Organic agriculture practices are based on several principles. They are principle of health, principle of ecology, principle of fairness & principle of care. Organic agriculture is used many techniques by other sustainable agriculture approaches such as inter cropping, crop rotation, mulching. Normally organic agriculture can describe as a self-sustainable & persistent agro ecosystem. It builds on an environment; economic & social aspect on agriculture production in both the local & global perspective.(Edition 2012) Organic agriculture is avoided synthetic fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides & use biological process such as composting, organic manure from livestock, nitrogen fixing legumes (Gabriel et al. 2010).

Energy intensive production input such as synthetic fertilizer which is likely to be further limited for poor rural people by rising energy price are avoided by organic agriculture. As well as used local resources. It maintain long term fertility of soil , avoid all form of pollution, reduce the use of fossil fuel, mitigate the climate change, produce food stuffs of high nutrition quality & sufficient quantity (Scialabba & Müller-Lindenlauf 2010).

Organic agriculture is used many method which that use in other alternative agriculture approach, & these system have existed for years in various countries of the world. (Anon n.d.)Intensified agriculture was caused to environment bad effect, decreased food quality, degrade farmer social security & community health in the 20th century & it was caused to lead new concept of sustainable agriculture. Therefore organic agriculture emerges instead of bad

agricultural practices (Jan et al. 2008). The situation conducive to the development of

organic agriculture was mainly due to environment friendly & its consumer acceptance. (Anon n.d.) As an alternative to the increasing intensification of agriculture major industrialized countries like Britain, Germany & Japan & US moved towards the organic agriculture with the high usage of synthetic N fertilizer since 1930-40 (Lotter 2003).

People are now trend to organic product due to they believe organic food are tastier, as well as healthier, both for themselves & environment than conventional foods. Although organic foods are more cost, they are willing to pay for their preference. Another thing for organic products famous is to no use any genetically modified thing (Anon n.d.).

According to survey of California, they gave questioner to leaders of organic community. It is clear that there is no consensus about whether organic agriculture as it is currently practiced, why it is necessary more social sustainable for farm workers than conventional agriculture. Large majority of farmers Saied organic agriculture was more environmentally sustainable, less than half think organic is more economically sustainable & most are seen to be more social sustainable than conventional agriculture (Shreck et al. 2006).

According to the international Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement, Organic agriculture includes all agriculture systems that promote environmentally, socially and economically sound product of food and fibers. These systems take local soil fertility as a key to successful production. By respecting the natural capacity of plants, animals and the landscape, it aims to optimize quality in all aspects of agriculture and the environment. Organic agriculture dramatically reduces external inputs by refraining from the use of chemo-synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Instead it allows the powerful laws of nature to increase both agriculture yields and disease resistance. Organic agriculture adheres to globally accepted principles, which are implemented within local social-economic, climatic and cultural settings (Badgley et al. 2007).

Firstly, organic agriculture was developed in Europe and USA & later expanded to other countries. Demand for organic agriculture has also led to the development of international trade. Some country have not internal demand but they have favorable climate for farming organic product that cannot be grown another country, are producing for the export market. (Demiryürek et al. 2008)Currently organic agriculture cover 37 million hectare globally which, corresponds to 0.9% global agriculture land (Seufert 2012). 1/3 of organic agriculture land and >3/4 of organic producers are located in developing & transition countries. Global market for organic produce was worth 59 billion US dollars in 2010. European and North American market was sale 96% of organics (Seufert 2012).

Developments of the economic marketing, legislative and policy environment that has provided the basis for resent development. In 1987, first measures of policy support for organic agriculture introduced in Denmark. The first plan of 1995 covered the period until 1999. (Lampkin 2000). According to the currently conducted survey on organic agriculture shown, greatest organic areas are Australia (11.8 million hectares), Argentina (3.1 million hectares), China (2.3 million hectares), and the US (1.6 million hectares). However Europe is the highest country with organically managed land and number of farmers. Total organic area in Asia is almost 2.9 million hectares, managed by 13,000 farms. In Australia, lands are more than 11.8 million hectares and 2,689 farms are under organic management. 6.9 million hectares in Europe &190,000 farms & North America 2.2 million hectares were managed under organic. North America had highest growth of organic land compare with other countries. (Ecology 2007)

In 2000 approximate worldwide certified organic land use was16 million hectares. Especially in US & worldwide average certified organic production growth in 20-25 per year since 1990. Commercially certified organic agriculture has been spread more than 130 countries all over the world (Vandna et al. 2014).

There are 18 million hectare of rain fed arable lands can be exploited for organic agriculture in the North Eastern region of India.(Building & Force 2009) productivity can increase in the low inputs traditional organic agriculture systems in developing country. (Scialabba 2000)As well as productivity can increase with locally available resource & improve low cost technologies. (Scialabba 2000)However if there are high potential for development to organic agriculture, many barriers are their both in developed & developing country. In developing countries, lacks of technical knowledge, lack of market information are some barriers of them. With producer in developed countries is that of certification, strict regulation, add considerable cost to the product. As well as organic agriculture still faced for problem with high labor inputs.(Anon n.d.)

  1. Inputs to the organic agriculture

By its definition the organic agriculture reflects its inputs to the system. traditional systems that are organic by default is not considered as organic agricultural systems according to the information on Scialabba, 2000. Synthetic inputs are banned in the organic agriculture and occasionally some chemicals are allowed to utilize in the case of antibiotics or medicine especially for the animal health cases. Use of organic and the biological inputs such as crop residues, animal waste (dung), litter and forest cuttings, slaughter house waste and green manure with nontraditional additives such as microbial fertilizers, microbial activators, soil conditioners and vermmi-compost are highly encourage and promoted on large scales (Kirchmann et al. 2008). Use of these microbial inputs, support increasing the number and activity of beneficial microbes, create favorable physical and chemical conditions of the soil which improve the soil health and fertility (Ghimire 2002). Management of every input in the field has an impact on the final yield.

2.1. Crop management

Almost all the kind of fruits, vegetables ( tomato, brinjal, chilli, cauliflower, cabbage, ginger, turmeric and even paddy) and any other kind of plant species( pulse crops like moong, urad, cowpea, lentils, all beans, legumes etc.) can be grown organically with a proper management of the crop grown. A vast range of products including the fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes, field crops such as cotton or wheat, dried fruits, aromatic plants, medicinal crops are grown organically over the world. The plant selection for the field is depend on the crop management practices such a crop rotation, intercropping, cover cropping, crop-animal association and finally agro forestry. One crop followed by another crop refers to the crop rotation which results weed and disease suppression action with nutrient requirement alteration in the field (Klonsky & Greene 2008). Spatial arrangement, mixed, relay, raw or strip intercropping, all types of systems need to be well managed. Cover crops are grown prior to cash crops and it serves habitat for insects, suppress weeds, and provide nitrogen to the field. Any crops which have high capacity of permanently covers the soil and improve soil fertility with high growth rate are considered as cover crops (Bàrberi 2002; SCIALABBA 2015). According to FAO, 2001 integration of crops and livestock together refers to crop-animal association which exchange fodder (crop residues for livestock) and organic fertilizers (draught and manure) within the same system. SCIALABBA, 2015 shows Thailand as an example for this, where pigs, chicken, vegetable gardens and fish integrated in the same farm system. Also agricultural systems in forestry lands under shade trees are another management practice in the world.

2.2. Water management

Water is the major limiting factor in the agriculture. Especially in organic agriculture farmers first improve the water retention in the soil and then reduce the evaporation mainly through mulching. Water harvesting and water irrigation both are practice under organic agriculture. Planting pits, contour bunds, catchment strips, half-moon micro catchment, semicircular earth bunds, water tanks and road catchments are some techniques used abundantly within the field. When it is coming to irrigation, organic agriculture use the most efficient and effective irrigation methods: micro irrigation methods such as drip irrigation (SCIALABBA 2015).

2.3. Fertilizer and nutrient management

Application of fertilizer is the most important section in the organic agriculture. Whole world recognize organic agriculture mainly as a system concern on environmentally sound fertilizer application and banned system for synthetic fertilizers. But the problem is, Is these system actually use organic fertilizer only for their nutrient requirement or still are they use synthetic fertilizers up to some extend? But there are no enough facts to say by literature records unless doing a proper survey.

Organic agriculture is always promoted and encouraged the organic fertilizers rather than inorganic or synthetic fertilizer. Mainly cover crop and decomposed poultry used for fertilization (Vasilikiotis 2000).

2.3.1. Compost

Composting is very important practice in the organic agriculture. Composting of all organic waste in general, farmyard manure and feedlot manure are to be composted and use as fertilizer to the field. Good management of manure improves the fertilizer value and less nutrient losses. Incorporating compost as a fertilizer to the soils improve the soil organic matter hence increase the water holding capacity of the soil supporting sufficient water for plants in extreme droughts. Compost tea and the herbal teas are currently shows a growing demand in organic agricultural sector (Meredith & Rishi 2011).

2.3.2. Green manure

Plants which are grown with the intension of accumulating nutrients for the crops are called as green manure. Cowpea, green gram, sunhemp are some examples and they work as surface of soil due to their slow rate of decomposition (SCIALABBA 2015).

2.3.3. Animal manure

Amount of animal manure applied for an organic agricultural farm usually higher than conventional agriculture when the yields of both are same (Kirchmann et al. 2008). Using animal manure refers to the biogas production and application of slurry to field as the fertilizer while taking methane out for energy requirements. Consistency of animal manure depends on whether animals kept in stable or not (SCIALABBA 2015; Ghimire 2002).

2.3.4. Microbial fertilizer

Biologically active products which contain active strains of microbes are called microbial fertilizers. Including bacteria, fungi, algae or combination of them mainly fix nitrogen, solubilize phosphate and zinc and absorb phosphate biologically as their duty. Table 1 shows the types of microbes used and their capacity of biological nitrogen fixation. As they enhance the soil fertility resulting 10%-20% increment in grain yield while it is cheap and make reduction in chemical fertilizer usage, organic agriculture always prefer microbial fertilizer to be use (S. Sheraz et al. 2009)

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As S. Sheraz et al., 2009 mentioning the viable options to increase the unit productivity of a land is to use bio fertilizers in order to meet the future demand on food grains : 321 million tons in 2020. Always the demand for these inputs (28.8 million tons) increase and the availability is insufficient (7.2 million tons).

Beside these microbes, phosphate solubilizers such as Psuedomonas, Burkholderia, Achromobacter, Agrobacterium, Micrococcus, Aereobacter, Bacillus, phosphate absorbers like plants belong to Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae or Polygonaceae with Juncaceae and finally Zinc solubilizers are highly concern in the organic agricultural practices. Since the rhizobium is major topic regarding the fertilizer in organic agricultural systems, table 2 shows the different amount of nitrogen fixations according to the plant type.

S. Sheraz et al., 2009 also mention basic four types of constrains regarding microbial fertilizers;

  1. Production constrains: unavailability of appropriate strains, suitable media and mutations during fermentation.
  2. Market constrains: lack of awareness and quality assurance, inadequate experience and un assured seasonal demand.
  3. Resource constrains: scare resources for bio fertilizer production.
  4. Field constrains: existing microbial population, climatic and soil factors, inoculation techniques and liquid bio fertilizers, which are common in practical situations.

Use of bio fertilizers get specific according to the agricultural crops which are used in the field. As it is a legume or non-legume crop, the application and practices get differs.

Table 1: Major microbial fertilizers used in the organic agriculture and their capacity of function (S. Sheraz et al. 2009).

Microbial fertilizerMajor functionCapacity of functionComments
RhizobiumBiological N fixing100-300kg N/haFix 50-100 kg N/ha only with legumes like chickpea, soybean and lucerne.
AzospirillumBiological N fixing20-40 kg N/haMainly recommended for maize, sugarcane, sorghum or millet.
AzotobacterBiological N fixing

Produce antibacterial, anti-fungal compounds, hormones and siderophones

10 mg N/g of carbon sourceEspecially under vitro conditions.

Cereals, millets, vegetables, cotton, sugarcane are recommended crops.

Blue green algae -AzollaBiological N fixing

Contribute for significant amount of micronutrients (P, K, S, Zn, Fe, Mb)

20-30 kg N/haEspecially used in paddy cultivations.
MycorrhizaIncrease phosphorus and trace metal uptakeSymbiotic relation. Uptakes influence on hormones and effect on water and nutrient in the plant.

Table 2: Crop types with their N fixing capacity per hectare (S. Sheraz et al. 2009).

CropFixing capacity (kg/ha)
Clover100-150
Alfalfa100-300
Groundnuts50-60
Soybean60-80
Mungbean50-55
Pasture legumes100-400

2.3.5. Mineral fertilizers

As organic agriculture consider holistic approach rather systematic approach it’s prime objective is to have quality yield. Organic agriculture worry about the production rather than the type of input used whether it as organic or restricted or allowed. But the soluble inorganic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides or chemicals are prohibited to utilize in the organic concept (Demiryürek et al. 2008). Use of mineral fertilizer became essential due to several reasons that are natural and anthropogenic.

In some cases organic farmers tend to mimics the “limiting factor” approach of conventional systems except usage of chemical and synthetic inputs. This substitution approach is supported by the profit oriented economic systems for their sales increment (Allen & Kovach 2000)

In the other hand there is a criticism that organic agriculture cannot support sufficient amount of nitrogen fertilizers to sustain the current yield. The organic manure cannot be produced in the organic agricultural system itself as sufficient. But proper arrangement of legumes and non-legumes, green manure and bio fertilizers can provide considerable amount of nitrogen during a year. In some experiments it is evident that manure based systems can effectively fertile the soil and also provide enough nitrogen to buildup nitrogen storage in the soil (Ex: Rothamsted and Rodale experiment).

When practice legumes in the field, the amount of nitrogen available to the other crops over the entire rotation should be sufficiently high. Which is normally a difficult task to obtain unless grows legumes in every second year at a minimum. The other limitation of using legumes is the soil fertility only possible at the expense of not using the yield for export from the field (Kirchmann et al. 2008).

Low nutrient availability and the poor weed control limit the organic agricultural yield thus leading organic farmers to utilize more synthetic fertilizers. Applying economical tools such as decrease of subsidizes for chemicals and fertilizers results reduction in consumptions. Iran supply an example of having 50% cost reduction through subsidized rate of pesticides and losing the export market due to excess international standard levels of chemical residues with food. And cotton cultivation is pesticide intensive crop system, 80% of cultivated systems in Egypt utilize biological pesticide for them while their government forbidden the Arial application of pesticides for cottons (Scialabba 2000).

According to the S.Sheraz et al, 2009 it mention that there is a ten million tons gap of plant nutrients between the chemical fertilizer supply and the removal of crops from the field. Table 3 include the mineral fertilizers which are allowed in organic agriculture.

Table 3: Mineral fertilizers which are allowed under organic farming

FertilizerOriginApplication
Plant ashesBurned organic mattersTo compost and around the plant base
LimeGround limestone and algaeWithin certain frequency when soil pH is low
Stone powderPulverized rocksTo far yard manure
Rock phosphatePulverized rocks containing PhosphorusTo compost and not to reddish soil.

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When we consider the world fertilizer usage in the main countries of organic farming: USA, Europe and Oceania the demand can be identified as illustrate below. (figure 1). Potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus supply and demand illustrated in figure 2, 3 and 4 respectively.

Figure 1: 2016 Total primary nutrient demands in thousand tons (FAO,2016)

 

Figure 2: World potassium fertilizer demand and supply in thousand tons (FAO, 2016)

Figure 3: Nitrogen fertilizer supply and demand in thousand tons (FAO, 2016)

Figure 4: Phosphorus fertilizer demand and supply (FAO, 201)

3.2.6. Pest and disease management

Pests and diseases are very common in organic agriculture due to its plenty of diversity. Microbial pesticides including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses, biochemical pesticides and integrated pest management are long term activities for preventing pests and diseases rather controlling. Use of proper sanitation measures, light traps, color and water traps, yellow sticky traps, fruit bagging, natural pesticides such as Neem, pyrethrum, chilies, capsicum pepper, garlic and some chemicals like sulphur and Bordeaux mixture (copper sulphate and lime) are some techniques use in organic agriculture as solutions for pest and diseases (Ghimire 2002; Bàrberi 2002; SCIALABBA 2015). Soil-borne root diseases are less sever in the organic agriculture than conventional agriculture (Lotter 2003).

Since most of these botanical pesticides are contact, respiratory and stomach poisons, it is difficult to target particular pest in the field. But the range of pesticides is broad. So these are not very selective and disadvantage is many of beneficial organisms may be destroyed.

3.2.7. Mulching and weed management

Weeds are the most serious threat in the organic agriculture where the crop weed relation dynamics highly influence on crop yield. Faster release of the nutrients promotes weeds to grow rapidly at early stages. Application of manure to field can carry weeds seeds as observed by Mt Pleasant and Schlater (1994), 1 kg of cattle manure contained up to 42vialble weed seeds of Chenopodium album L. weeds. It can be overcome by composting properly before manure application in the field. Fungi can be used for biological weed control and physical control through harrowing, hoeing, manual weeding or flaming. Some plant traits such as plant height are competitive with weeds (suppress weeds) but on the other hand the yield is drastically reduced. Production of allelochemicals also both positive and negative effects depending on the crop variety grown in the field (Bàrberi 2002).

As organic agriculture is limited to two techniques of weed control (mechanical- physical and biological), the weed population is normally higher in the organic fields. As prevention techniques crop management and mulching are practice, but mulching also contribute to higher

moisture retention and covering the sunlight penetration which leads to pests and diseases Beside that living green cover can be practice as in Africa, sowing cowpea and melons or pumpkins as intercrop in cassava to control weeds. Balanced fertilization, land preparation practices, soil cultivation methods and biological weed controls are practice in the field (SCIALABBA 2015). Cultivation of legumes also indirectly control weed (Elsen 2000).

  1. Certification and labeling of organic agriculture

The term organic is a labeling term that the product is produced according to the organic standards throughout the production process, handling process, processing & marketing process (lotter, 2003). Labeling is a source of information of product. This information combines with the intentions of green consumers and drives the growth of progressive markets (kovach, 2000 march).the serious barriers to green consumer about the product, is the absence of nationally accepted standards or coding systems for determining what products are environmentally sound” (Ellington et al., 1990: 7). By the labeling system of organic industry overcome this problem.

Organic certification is very important for market purposes, especially when distance is great from producers to consumers and there is a need to verify the organic claim (lindenlauf, 2010march). Organic standards focus mainly on allowable environmental friendly inputs, they tend to suggest that the value of organic product is a function of the inputs themselves instead of the whole labor process that went into producing the commodity. Through the allowable input usage organic label show the reduction of natural social complexity (kovach, 2000 march)

There is not a constant organic standards. They are not static. These certification standards change every few year. According to the entry of new allowable inputs, new production and processing techniques certification standards will be changed by the certification committee (merfield, 2006). Organic standards do not currently permit the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

There are lots of organic certification and standards in world wide. Today, 395 organizations worldwide offer organic certification services (willer, 2007). In 1992 the EU implemented organic standards with Regulation 2092/91 for the production, processing, and trade5 of organic products. The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), Codex Aliment Arius, and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) are the three bodies of central to global organic production standards.

IFOAM is a private, non-profit, Europe-based organization member organizations from 105 countries. IFOAM’s Basic Standards for organic production, processing, and distribution have been used extensively since the 1970s for development of certification programs by bodies such as the EU, FAO, and various national organic programs.

ISO65, an international standards protocol administered by the International Organization for Standardization, sets requirements for bodies operating product certification systems. Bodies such as the EU require ISO65compliance by certifiers of organic product producers that export to the EU. The new USDA Organic Rule requires ISO 65compliance for certifying bodies (USDA 2000c).

The democratically developed IFOAM Basic Standards (IFOAM 2005b) that have existed for more than twenty years. During the 1990s CODEX Aliment Arius (a joint FAO/WHO body) also developed international organic guidelines, which are very similar to the IFOAM Basic

Standards in their scope. The EU, the USA and many other developed, and increasingly developing, countries have enshrined these guidelines within their own legislation. (rundgren, 2006 feb)

Organic certification is required by farmers also to annually inspect and confirm that their farms and businesses adhere to the organic standards established by various trading partners. However, according to the Codex Guidelines on Organically Produced Food (2007), products produced on land under organic management for at least one year, but less than the two-three year requirement could be sold as “transition to organic”; but very few markets have developed for such products.

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Requirement of registration and license of fertilizer are another necessary for organic production. Since April 2006, quality of Bio fertilizers such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB and organic fertilizers such as City waste compost, vermicompost and press mud are being monitored under the Fertilizer Control Order (Amendment November 2009).

  1. Marketing and demand of organic agriculture

The organics market is a powerful engine that provide the space and resources for social movement activity. Due to the growth of the organic market the number of producer and consumer is increased. Increased number of potential participants promote the social movement of the organic markeesearch, conference, and other political activity. And it is a source for the fund for it try to change the environment positively because it encourages greater environmental awareness and promotes the responsibility among producers and consumers alike. Its environmental benefits and its ability to use and alter capitalist markets, organic agriculture is currently a positive force for environmentalism (kovach, 2000 march). At the same time it promotes social and political positivizes. Organic market system needs greater openness and transparency. Real information about the producer should be given on the packaging, or particular route of sale (rundgren, 2006 feb).

Healthy food is very important requirement for everyone. Providing healthy food is one of the future issue nowadays. Food, fiber, feed demand is greatly increase in future because of the population growth. By 2030, the global population may reach 8-9 billion (holger krichmann, 2005). Therefore the demand of organic food is increasing, there is another view of argument about the demand due to the more expensive of organic food. Low-income families and people in the third world would not be able to afford it. This higher price difference of organic product is the result of higher demand (vasilikiotis, 2000 november).

Organic agriculture has become an option to improve household food security with the economic crisis, mostly in developed countries. IFOAM is encouraging the development of local and regional markets, both in developed and developing countries. Domestic marketing of organic food in developing countries is currently expanding rapidly in countries such as Costa Rica, Brazil, the Philippines and Thailand (rundgren, 2006 feb). Germany is a biggest market for organic products with an annual turnover of 3.9 billion euros. Italy and franc take following places (willer, 2007).

Developed country’s’ organic product market is very developed like their country.it produce for a premium price market. But in recent decades we can see the substantial growth of organic agriculture market in developing country. Self-declarations or participatory guarantee system another method of organic quality assurance for the market place. Participatory guarantee systems are non-certified initiatives that use standards written by the producers themselves, often based on IFOAM‘s Basic Standards (rundgren, 2006 feb). Some of the general principles can be agreed upon, but they are not standardized certification like third party certification.

Policy, goals on organic agriculture improve,

  • Strengthening agricultural research and knowledge transfer
  • Building institutional capacities and human capital in developing countries
  • Developing domestic markets and improving market access in developing countries
  • Creating new opportunities for poor farmers

Under the Policy recommendation of Canadian international development agency (CIDA) organic market get a special space for it. They are,

  • Contribute to capacity building of organic farmer cooperatives.
  • Promote the development and integration of organic markets.
  • Help in developing domestic organic markets.

(seafert)

If we take U.S organic market as an example, it has continues expansion in several ways. they are, increasing the number of retail outlets with respect to type and number, increasing the number of organic products available in each outlet type, entry of mainstream food manufacturers into organic, branding of organic, and increased export. But growth of the market is depending on green consumers’ demand (greene, 2005).

National and supranational policies for organic agriculture have been so far concerned with creating favorable structures for the market development. And it provides legal definitions for product. Market demand for organic agriculture products pulls agriculture production policies towards a more sustainable direction and links demand and supply (scialabba, 2000 august).

Demand of the organic product has been increasing annually. For example, Annual growth rates of certified organic product sales in the U.S. have exceeded 20% since 1992, 25% in the European Union 36% in the U.S. in 1997 .The global organic Product market value in 2001 is estimated to be $20B with the U.S. and EU OP shares valued at $6B and $8B, respectively in 2000, and Japan $1.7B in 1997. Global markets for organic products are projected to continue to grow at 5-40% yr-1 and in the U.S. 20-30% in the medium term (lotter, 2003).

 

Western Europe (52%) and North America (45%) are the major market for organic agriculture. The world retail market has rapidly grown by 131%, reaching US$21.5 million between 1996 and 2000. About 1–4% of total world food sales are derived from organic food (Yussefi, 2003). Organic Monitor expected that world organic food sales would reach US$40 billion by 2006, following a 43% increase between 2002 and 2005 (kursal demiryurek, 2008 december).

Another example of turkey organic market is that export organic products to 37 different countries, mainly to Germany, the Netherlands, the UK, Italy and France in the EU. Switzerland, the USA, Belgium, Denmark, Austria, Thailand, Spain, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Bulgaria, India, Japan, Slovenia and New Zealand are other developing export markets worth promoting turkey has a wide organic market (kursal demiryurek, 2008 december). And India also an organic market supplier in world wide. It has tremendous potential to grow crops organically (s.sheraz mahdi, 2010)

  1. Product quality and production

5.1. Yield

At present it is inevitable of using chemical inputs in agriculture to meet the growing demand for food in world; there are opportunities in some crops and niche areas where organic production can be increased to tape the domestic export market.(Kashmir 2010)

Organic methods are impossible of producing more food as conventional methods (Badgley et al. 2007). There are no sufficient organically acceptable fertilizers to make enough organic food. Organic farmers use polycultures and multiple cropping systems, from which the total production per unit area is often substantially higher than for single crops (Badgley et al. 2007).

The yield of the crops are reduced because of climate change, scarcer water supply and extending land degradation as a result of that it will not be able to provide sufficient, accessible and nutritious foods. Under certain conditions (e.g. legumes and perennials in rain fed agriculture and under favorable soil acidity) organic yields might nearly match conventional yields.

Sustainable yield increases in low-input system through agro ecological methods like agroforestry, integrated pest management or the use of leguminous green manures. The adoption of sustainable management practices; increase the yield on average by 79% while simultaneously increasing the environmental performance of agriculture (Seufert 2012). Usages of external inputs are limited in organic agriculture farming systems. Synthetic fertilizers and chemical pesticides are not used (Scialabba & Mu 2010).

Organic yields are 20% less as compared to high-input systems in developed countries but could be up to 180% higher as compared to low-input systems in arid/semi-arid areas. As an example, Turkey is a developing country which based on export agriculture by production of organic product to European unions. About 85% of organic products are exported to European countries. There is a great potential in Turkey for organic agriculture because it’s geographic and topographic structure which suitable for various crops as diverse climate and ecological conditions (Demiryürek et al. 2008). The U.S. produces 36% of the world’s organic cotton (USDA-FAS 1998) and its acreage grew by 75% from 1998-1999 (Marquardt 2000), but organic cotton accounted for only 0.1% of U.S. cotton in 1997. Approximately 1/3 of U.S. culinary and medicinal herb acreage is organic.(Lotter 2003)

All though European Union has been compulsory to use organically produced seeds for sowing organic crops since 31st December 2003, the demand for organic seed is much higher than its availability (Bàrberi et al. 2016). The cereal production of the world is estimated to achieve 2295 million tons by 2012 but it was unable to fulfill and it down by 52 million tones or 2.2 percent because of declining prospect in maize production in the United States as a severe drought (Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations Rome, 2012).

    1. Health

Organic agriculture is supposed to produce healthier and more nutritious food and could thus potentially contribute to dietary and nutritional needs (Seufert 2012). Organic methods could sustain the current human population, in terms of daily caloric intake. The current world food supply provides 2786 kcalperson-1 day-1. The average caloric requirement for a healthy adult is between 2200 and 2500 kcalday-1(Badgley et al. 2007). The vegetable and fruit products grown in organic agriculture would be expected to be more health-promoting than conventional ones.(Brandt & Mølgaard 2001)

    1. Nutrition

Nutrient contents of organically produced foods do not appear to differ strongly. Their bioavailability as well as the nutrient quality might be better in organic food. Non-nutrient components, like plant secondary metabolites, might be higher in organic food and might provide the most important health benefit of organic food (Seufert 2012).

Higher diversity of organic systems could thus potentially improve the nutritional status of organic farmers (Seufert 2012).

Obtaining food security by sustainable agriculture, fixed nitrogen requirement must be increasingly met by biological nitrogen fixation rather than by industrial nitrogen fixation (Kashmir 2010).

Our global estimate of Nitrogen fixed by the use of additional leguminous crops as fertilizer is 140 million Mg, and the global use of synthetic N fertilizer was 82 million Mg. so there is 58 million Mg greater than the amount of used (Badgley et al. 2007).

Plant nutrients availability is influenced by primary nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Generally protein content increases with nitrogen uptake and sugar content rises when phosphorous levels are low relative to other elements (Brandt & Mølgaard 2001). When plants are grown with artificial nutrients and pesticides, they are supposed to lose their natural defense mechanisms (Brandt & Mølgaard 2001).

There is a roughly same nutrient content in vegetables which produced by organic and conventional. It can be vary with changing soil type and farming system. The contents of protein, and in particular of nitrate, were consistently lower in organic products, which confirms that they, on average, would have been grown with lower nutrient supply than the conventional ones.(Brandt & Mølgaard 2001)

A number of comparative studies have found higher total-N concentrations and lower protein quality in Conventional Products. Differences in N-content and quality can be ecologically important, as high nitrogen and free amino acids have been shown to increase susceptibility to pests (Lotter 2003). C/N balance is a special and typical case of the growth/differentiation balance theory, since low nitrogen availability of the most common growth-limiting condition in natural ecosystems.(Brandt & Mølgaard 2001)

Quality after storage has been reported to be better in organic products relative to conventional products after comparative tests (Lotter 2003).

  1. Sustainability

Assessment of the potential of organic agriculture to the sustainability has to be considered under main 4 topics:

1. The environmental benefits

2. The yield potential

3. The social acceptability and

4. Accessibility to rural farmers (Seufert 2012).

To be a sustainable system the organic agriculture should comply with economically viable, ecologically sound and socially acceptable conditions through long term changes of political, social and economic structures and relationships (Allen & Kovach 2000). One of the main principles of organic agriculture is based on the work in living environment with ecological cycles and helps them to sustain. It refers as ecological principle. The next is principle of fairness, means this all practices should be based upon the relationship to ensure the safe of common environment and life opportunities. Principle of care refers to the precautionary and responsible actions towards the protection of wellbeing at present and future generations. The precautionary principle addresses the protection of human, animal and environment throughout the technological adaptions. Principle of animal welfare is to ensure the protection and proper take caring of animals without stress conditions with their natural behaviors. The principle on soil ensures and enhances the soil fertility throughout the framing (Ghimire 2002).

Organic agriculture is not just based on short term profit oriented goals but on long term sustainable approach which benefits for each and every one. Organic agriculture should meet the triple challenge of food production increment, providing nutritious food with proper accessibility and finally minimizing the environmental impacts while farming.

Organic agriculture may not sustainable in the context of land cost approach since it uses much higher amount of land area to sustain the food production. But enhancing the yield per unit area support to overcome such situations (Guzmán Casado & González de Molina 2009; Demiryürek et al. 2008). Ecological sustainability aims less harm to the environment while enhancing the species richness and abundancy, improving the soil structure and fertility, greenhouse gas emission reduction from fossil fuel burning, carbon sequestration, crop management practices to diversify animal and plant occurrence to sustainably maintain the environment through organic agriculture (Seufert 2012). A study show that growth of organic tea obtained 10-11% of carbon footprint while 6-7% obtained by the same product in conventional system. This results evidence large amount of compost and manure usage considerably contributes to the global warming (9% of the total global warming potential). And 5.5% of total global warming potential is due to high use of nitrogen fertilizer in conventional farms (Doublet & Jungbluth 2010). Nitrogen mineralization potential, microbial abundance and diversity are considered as health indicators in higher organic agricultures (Kirchmann et al. 2008). US livestock operation produces more than one million tons of manure per year contribute to sever global warming issues unless use it in an organic field in a proper way. 28% of organic carbon normally occurs in organic fields. Most of literature reveal that organic agriculture is less destructive to the soils , in same way it improve the soil physical, chemical and biological properties (Gabriel et al. 2010). Conversion of conventional systems in to organic conserves 9-51% of energy generally used in agriculture. Global environment policy objectives, combating desertification, carbon off setting, global warming are the roles of organic agriculture (Rundgren 2007).

Callauch in 1981, mentioned weed community of neighbor lands are two to three times greater than organic agriculture. Exclusion of fossil fuel from organic systems, made declining trend in emissions to be results environmentally sounds. 0.4-0.6% Gt of carbon dioxide are reducing due to lack use of synthetic fertilizers. Compacted soils emit more nitrous oxides and lowering the bulk density or enhancing soil aeration is applicable in such situations. Intensive fertilization, higher nitrogen usage both leading to the infertile topsoil thus reduces the yield (Scialabba & Müller-Lindenlauf 2010).

As Guzmán Casado and González de Molina, 2009 mentioned land cost is a good indicator to degree of sustainability in organic agriculture. Improve in soil structure due to organic manures, enhancing soil fertility by use of mulches and legumes conserve the soil, reduce the surface runoff, increase infiltration, promote biological diversity, recycling the nutrients, use of renewable energies make organic agriculture sustainable in the ecological context.

Organic agriculture is dominant in developed countries while increasing trend seems to be in developing countries. Major market for organic products can be seen in developed countries due to its high rates. But most of productions are in developing countries giving more opportunities to rural people to make quality lifestyles. One of major objective of organic agriculture is to move towards sustainability by rural development.

Low cost inputs including irrigations, energy and other external inputs only required for the system while capacity building through researches and training.50-60% lower cost for cereals, 10-20% lower for horticultural and potatoes while 20-25% lower cost for dairy production by their average values (Lotter 2003). This production system reduce the risk of low yields due to various crop managements as mention before thus ensure the returns and economic stability. High demand from international market provides access to local farmers’ products in higher rates ensuring the profits. There are about 633891 organic farmers cultivating 0.7% of total agricultural lands (Demiryürek et al. 2008). Organic agriculture provide nearly 30% employment in rural areas resulting higher return for unit labour input while the operational cost is considerably lower (Meredith & Rishi 2011). And also D.lotter, 2003 shows that environmental cot is lower in organic agriculture than conventional all together stand for betterment of rural social lives while ensuring the economic benefits.

Social health is highly concern in organic agriculture considering physical, mental and social wellbeing of people rather prevention of disease or illness which already a prerequisite of organic agriculture. With these multidimensional benefits the poverty alleviation and rural development is ensured through organic practices. Inter-generational and intra-generational equity is well representing by this systems. Agrochemical exposure and impacts related to that are critically evaluated since it causes hazardous effects on community. So organic agriculture more sounds safety in this aspect by ensuring the safety for farmers and related communities.

  1. Discussion

Organic farming has been improved in developed and developing country. But some countries still not have sufficient development. There some limitation and risk in organic farming sector specially in developing countries. Lack of the organic agriculture technique is one of the main limitation for the development of organic agriculture sector. Traditional and other organic agricultural techniques help to improve the rural development and sustainable agriculture. But the main thing is, supply more development technologies locally adapted forms of production (lindenlauf, 2010march).

Low yield potential is another major limitation. Nutrient shortage and high weed population reduce the organic yield. Due to the exclusive usage of on farm manures and untreated minerals, organic agriculture provide limited yield. Organic manure is limited resource.it is very difficult to get sufficient quantities for gaining high crop yield. We can get an example worldwide. Europe organic agriculture yield is less than it conventional agriculture yield. compared with conventional agriculture organic agriculture need more land to produce same amount of yield.it uses cropland less efficiently.so the large scale conversion to agriculture would be caused to severe food shortage in future.so if compensate the food demand by food supply, should be placed more development technologies in organic farming sector to increase yield (holger krichmann, 2005).

For keep competitive competition with conventional agriculture, organic farmers require new modern technologies and have to manage inputs such as labor, capital, land and innovation slightly different from conventional agriculture. It is very difficult to get specific inputs and biological method pest control by small farmers. Legumes and their residues can ability to replace the inorganic fertilizer. But the problem is usage of local input and untreated minerals alone cannot be overcome the low native soil fertility Poor farmers must overcome the trade barrier of organic certification (kilcher L., 2007). According to the OFRF survey, cost of the allowable inputs is the biggest constraint to organic agriculture production (lotter, 2003).

Organic farming needs high labor requirement to replace labor. Cover cropping, compost for nutrient management are used instead of synthetic herbicides and chemical fertilizers.so these action needs high labor intensity.so it is an important barrier to the adoption of organic management.

Large scale organic agriculture requires the external support from research institution to introduce pest management, strong extension system and agro ecological methods of fertility management. Organic agriculture research and extension work need substantial professional and substantial cost.it acts as a barrier for the development of organic agriculture (lotter, 2003).

Green customers who have well awareness improve the organic global and domestic market. Without the awareness and limited quantities of organic vegetables are the barriers to organic product promoting. Recently the amount of aware green consumer is increasing by the wealth and well education. (kursal demiryurek, 2008 december). So the organic market also increasing.

However the global organic market is developed, the participation of producers from poor countries is still low. This is another limitation. They cannot define their own local organic standards. The condition of small farmers in developing countries is complex in inspection, accreditation, and certification process of organic agriculture.so big question in marketing is, how market partners from developed and richer countries make the organic market more transparent and open to access for small farmers from developing country. Organic trade market benefits and income aren’t always equally distributed. So it has a less guarantee.

For both certified organic agriculture and non-market organic production, the major benefit to be derived from government and international organizational support is from adequate research and education. This would entail a shift of capital investments from hard to soft technologies – that is, from agricultural inputs (private goods) to knowledge building (a public good). This is a major challenge.

In the developing country government must focus both export market and the domestic consumption. And it try to stimulate both. Domestic market is limited because of lack promotion activities, lack of infrastructure, lack of consumer awareness, high prices and regulation (kursal demiryurek, 2008 december). Constraints for small farmers to adopting organic agriculture in developing country, less developed country. They are, Lack of knowledge about organic agriculture, Lack of economic and political advocacy, Population pressures encourage intensification, The high cost of certification by foreign organizations, Low literacy levels in rural areas make recordkeeping a problem, Lack of trade liberalization in some countries, prevents development of exports.

And also government give incentives to small farmers. They are providing organic agriculture indigenous knowledge, market opportunities, providing green revolution technologies (merfield, 2006). In many developing countries, there can be substantial delays before farmers receive the full payments for their organic produce and organic farmers often sell parts of their organic produce on lower-paying conventional markets to receive.

But the same time most of the developing country has rich biological diversity. Due to that species resistant to diseases is the main advantages of organic agriculture production in there (kursal demiryurek, 2008 december).

Commonly the major problem of organic agriculture are,

• Amount of share is low for conversion to organic farming.

• High price of bioproducts.

• lack of the legume production

• Lack of knowledge and techniques.

• Unsuitable crop rotation.

• Dual character of farm size category.

• Price per labor unit is higher.

• Higher cost per production

 

If these limitations, risks and constraint overcome organic agriculture provide more advantages environmentally, economically and socially. For example Soil fertility is a heart of healthy agriculture. By the absence of synthetic fertilizer organic agriculture provides contribution to healthy ecosystem, correct water table and proper soil fertility .environmental sustainability will be achieved.

Conventional agriculture is a cause for high pre consumer human health cost because of the pesticide usage. It is estimated that 25 million agricultural workers in developing countries are poisoned each year by pesticides .but in the organic agriculture there is no these kind of problem (lotter, 2003). Employment is increasing in the agriculture job market. Economical sustainability will be achieved.

Although Food security is the big issue in organic agriculture, it is essential practice in future. Does the organic agriculture fulfill the food demand future? This is the question running in every agriculturist mind. At the same time we have to think about another question? Does the conventional agriculture successfully feed the world nowadays? The answer is no. So high yielding high input system is currently failed to feed the world now. I think productivity is not a problem. The problem is social organization and food distribution pattern. So government should consider the improvement of organic farming either it fulfilling the demand or not.

 

  1. Conclusion

Although the organic agriculture and conventional agriculture have huge different in their productivity, environmental ecological social sustainability, input usage and the domestic global market; we cannot take clear decision for the best agricultural system.

Conventional agriculture has high productivity compared with organic agriculture. But we cannot reject the organic agriculture for the low productivity. Because productivity is not only the matter to fulfill the future demand. Conventional agriculture also cannot feed the world now.So the main things are food distribution pattern and social organization. Conventional agriculture cannot give the food security solely. Organic practices are also essential to our food security. It try to fulfill the demand with more sustainable and environmental friendly manner. If global food market will get the corporation from small organic farmer, organic agriculture and global organic market can achieve higher position. So the government must provide the incentives, guide the way for organic certification and global market participation to local small organic farmers.

 

  1. References

Allen, P. & Kovach, M., 2000. The capitalist composition of organic: The potential of markets in fulfilling the promise of organic agriculture. Agriculture and Human Values, 17(3), pp.221–232. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007640506965\nhttp://www.springerlink.com.proxy1.lib.umanitoba.ca/content/v44t1v72r6238612/fulltext.pdf.

Anon, Problems and Prospect of Organic Farming in Developing Countries Bello. W. B*. , pp.36–43.

Badgley, C. et al., 2007. Organic agriculture and the global food supply. Reneweble agriculture and food systems, 22(2), pp.86–108. Available at: http://development.panna.org/sites/default/files/OrganicAgricultureandtheglobalfoodsupply.pdf.

Bàrberi, P., 2002. Weed management in organic agriculture: Are we addressing the right issues? Weed Research, 42(3), pp.177–193.

Building, U.C. & Force, T., 2009. O rganic A griculture : O rganic A griculture : , 2(10), pp.42–54.

Demiryürek, K., Stopes, C. & Güzel, A., 2008. Organic agriculture: the case of Turkey. Outlook on Agriculture, 37(4), pp.261–267. Available at: http://oag.sagepub.com/lookup/doi/10.5367/000000008787167754.

Ecology, T.F., 2007. Archived at http://orgprints.org/13163/. , pp.9–16.

Edition, T., 2012. Principles of. , (November), p.819.

Elsen, V.T., 2000. Species diversity as a task for organic agriculture. in Europe. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 77(July 1999), pp.101–109.

Gabriel, D. et al., 2010. Scale matters: The impact of organic farming on biodiversity at different spatial scales. Ecology Letters, 13(7), pp.858–869.

Ghimire, A., 2002. A review on organic farming for sustainable agriculture. , p.25.

Jan, M.J. et al., 2008. Major Problems of Organic Farming – Experience Transmission.

Kirchmann, H. et al., 2008. Chapter 3 Can Organic Crop Production Feed the World ? , pp.1–31.

Klonsky, K. & Greene, C., 2008. Selected Paper prepared for presentation at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, July 1-4, 2004. Environmental Protection, (979), pp.1–22.

Lampkin, N., 2000. Development of policies for organic agriculture.

Lotter, D.W., 2003. J. Sustain. Agric. 21(4). Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 23 (4)(2000), pp.1–63.

Meredith, S. & Rishi, K., 2011. International Federation of RESOURCE EFFICIENCY AND ORGANIC FARMING : Facing up to the challenge.

S. Sheraz, M. et al., 2009. T He W Orld of O Rganic a Griculture. Journal of Phytology, 2(10), pp.42–54.

Scialabba, N., 2000. Factors influencing organic agriculture policies with a focus on developing countries. IFOAM 2000 Scientific Conference, Basel, Switzerland, (August), pp.28–31. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docs/eims/upload/230159/BaselSum-final.pdf.

SCIALABBA, N., 2015. TRAINING MANUAL FOR ORGANIC AGRICULTURE E. and T. D. (NRC) of the Nadia SCIALABBA Climate & F. and A. O. of the U. N. (FAO), eds.,

Scialabba, N.E.-H. & Müller-Lindenlauf, M., 2010. Organic agriculture and climate change. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 25(Special Issue 02), pp.158–169. Available at: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7667776\nhttp://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=7667784&jid=RAF&volumeId=25&issueId=02&aid=7667776&bodyId=&membershipNumber=&societyETOCSession=.

Seufert, V., 2012. Research to Practice Policy Briefs Organic Agriculture as an Opportunity for Sustainable Agricultural Development funded by the Canadian International Development Agency ( CIDA ). Executive summary. Research to Practice Policy Briefs, (13), pp.1–26.

Shreck, A., Getz, C. & Feenstra, G., 2006. Social sustainability, farm labor, and organic agriculture: Findings from an exploratory analysis. Agriculture and Human Values, 23(4), pp.439–449.

Vandna, P., Ravindra, S. & Pankaj, G., 2014. Algal Biodiesel as an Emerging Source of Energy: A Review. International Journal of Research, 1(5), pp.485–492.

Vasilikiotis, C., 2000. Organic Farming.pdf. , (November), pp.1–7.

  1. Introduction

WORLD ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABILITY, PRODUCT QUALITY AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

Organic agriculture is major used word in the world at present. Organic agriculture practices are based on several principles. They are principle of health, principle of ecology, principle of fairness & principle of care. Organic agriculture is used many techniques by other sustainable agriculture approaches such as inter cropping, crop rotation, mulching. Normally organic agriculture can describe as a self-sustainable & persistent agro ecosystem. It builds on an environment; economic & social aspect on agriculture production in both the local & global perspective.(Edition 2012) Organic agriculture is avoided synthetic fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides & use biological process such as composting, organic manure from livestock, nitrogen fixing legumes (Gabriel et al. 2010).

Energy intensive production input such as synthetic fertilizer which is likely to be further limited for poor rural people by rising energy price are avoided by organic agriculture. As well as used local resources. It maintain long term fertility of soil , avoid all form of pollution, reduce the use of fossil fuel, mitigate the climate change, produce food stuffs of high nutrition quality & sufficient quantity (Scialabba & Müller-Lindenlauf 2010).

Organic agriculture is used many method which that use in other alternative agriculture approach, & these system have existed for years in various countries of the world. (Anon n.d.)Intensified agriculture was caused to environment bad effect, decreased food quality, degrade farmer social security & community health in the 20th century & it was caused to lead new concept of sustainable agriculture. Therefore organic agriculture emerges instead of bad

agricultural practices (Jan et al. 2008). The situation conducive to the development of

organic agriculture was mainly due to environment friendly & its consumer acceptance. (Anon n.d.) As an alternative to the increasing intensification of agriculture major industrialized countries like Britain, Germany & Japan & US moved towards the organic agriculture with the high usage of synthetic N fertilizer since 1930-40 (Lotter 2003).

People are now trend to organic product due to they believe organic food are tastier, as well as healthier, both for themselves & environment than conventional foods. Although organic foods are more cost, they are willing to pay for their preference. Another thing for organic products famous is to no use any genetically modified thing (Anon n.d.).

According to survey of California, they gave questioner to leaders of organic community. It is clear that there is no consensus about whether organic agriculture as it is currently practiced, why it is necessary more social sustainable for farm workers than conventional agriculture. Large majority of farmers Saied organic agriculture was more environmentally sustainable, less than half think organic is more economically sustainable & most are seen to be more social sustainable than conventional agriculture (Shreck et al. 2006).

According to the international Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement, Organic agriculture includes all agriculture systems that promote environmentally, socially and economically sound product of food and fibers. These systems take local soil fertility as a key to successful production. By respecting the natural capacity of plants, animals and the landscape, it aims to optimize quality in all aspects of agriculture and the environment. Organic agriculture dramatically reduces external inputs by refraining from the use of chemo-synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Instead it allows the powerful laws of nature to increase both agriculture yields and disease resistance. Organic agriculture adheres to globally accepted principles, which are implemented within local social-economic, climatic and cultural settings (Badgley et al. 2007).

Firstly, organic agriculture was developed in Europe and USA & later expanded to other countries. Demand for organic agriculture has also led to the development of international trade. Some country have not internal demand but they have favorable climate for farming organic product that cannot be grown another country, are producing for the export market. (Demiryürek et al. 2008)Currently organic agriculture cover 37 million hectare globally which, corresponds to 0.9% global agriculture land (Seufert 2012). 1/3 of organic agriculture land and >3/4 of organic producers are located in developing & transition countries. Global market for organic produce was worth 59 billion US dollars in 2010. European and North American market was sale 96% of organics (Seufert 2012).

Developments of the economic marketing, legislative and policy environment that has provided the basis for resent development. In 1987, first measures of policy support for organic agriculture introduced in Denmark. The first plan of 1995 covered the period until 1999. (Lampkin 2000). According to the currently conducted survey on organic agriculture shown, greatest organic areas are Australia (11.8 million hectares), Argentina (3.1 million hectares), China (2.3 million hectares), and the US (1.6 million hectares). However Europe is the highest country with organically managed land and number of farmers. Total organic area in Asia is almost 2.9 million hectares, managed by 13,000 farms. In Australia, lands are more than 11.8 million hectares and 2,689 farms are under organic management. 6.9 million hectares in Europe &190,000 farms & North America 2.2 million hectares were managed under organic. North America had highest growth of organic land compare with other countries. (Ecology 2007)

In 2000 approximate worldwide certified organic land use was16 million hectares. Especially in US & worldwide average certified organic production growth in 20-25 per year since 1990. Commercially certified organic agriculture has been spread more than 130 countries all over the world (Vandna et al. 2014).

There are 18 million hectare of rain fed arable lands can be exploited for organic agriculture in the North Eastern region of India.(Building & Force 2009) productivity can increase in the low inputs traditional organic agriculture systems in developing country. (Scialabba 2000)As well as productivity can increase with locally available resource & improve low cost technologies. (Scialabba 2000)However if there are high potential for development to organic agriculture, many barriers are their both in developed & developing country. In developing countries, lacks of technical knowledge, lack of market information are some barriers of them. With producer in developed countries is that of certification, strict regulation, add considerable cost to the product. As well as organic agriculture still faced for problem with high labor inputs.(Anon n.d.)

  1. Inputs to the organic agriculture

By its definition the organic agriculture reflects its inputs to the system. traditional systems that are organic by default is not considered as organic agricultural systems according to the information on Scialabba, 2000. Synthetic inputs are banned in the organic agriculture and occasionally some chemicals are allowed to utilize in the case of antibiotics or medicine especially for the animal health cases. Use of organic and the biological inputs such as crop residues, animal waste (dung), litter and forest cuttings, slaughter house waste and green manure with nontraditional additives such as microbial fertilizers, microbial activators, soil conditioners and vermmi-compost are highly encourage and promoted on large scales (Kirchmann et al. 2008). Use of these microbial inputs, support increasing the number and activity of beneficial microbes, create favorable physical and chemical conditions of the soil which improve the soil health and fertility (Ghimire 2002). Management of every input in the field has an impact on the final yield.

2.1. Crop management

Almost all the kind of fruits, vegetables ( tomato, brinjal, chilli, cauliflower, cabbage, ginger, turmeric and even paddy) and any other kind of plant species( pulse crops like moong, urad, cowpea, lentils, all beans, legumes etc.) can be grown organically with a proper management of the crop grown. A vast range of products including the fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes, field crops such as cotton or wheat, dried fruits, aromatic plants, medicinal crops are grown organically over the world. The plant selection for the field is depend on the crop management practices such a crop rotation, intercropping, cover cropping, crop-animal association and finally agro forestry. One crop followed by another crop refers to the crop rotation which results weed and disease suppression action with nutrient requirement alteration in the field (Klonsky & Greene 2008). Spatial arrangement, mixed, relay, raw or strip intercropping, all types of systems need to be well managed. Cover crops are grown prior to cash crops and it serves habitat for insects, suppress weeds, and provide nitrogen to the field. Any crops which have high capacity of permanently covers the soil and improve soil fertility with high growth rate are considered as cover crops (Bàrberi 2002; SCIALABBA 2015). According to FAO, 2001 integration of crops and livestock together refers to crop-animal association which exchange fodder (crop residues for livestock) and organic fertilizers (draught and manure) within the same system. SCIALABBA, 2015 shows Thailand as an example for this, where pigs, chicken, vegetable gardens and fish integrated in the same farm system. Also agricultural systems in forestry lands under shade trees are another management practice in the world.

2.2. Water management

Water is the major limiting factor in the agriculture. Especially in organic agriculture farmers first improve the water retention in the soil and then reduce the evaporation mainly through mulching. Water harvesting and water irrigation both are practice under organic agriculture. Planting pits, contour bunds, catchment strips, half-moon micro catchment, semicircular earth bunds, water tanks and road catchments are some techniques used abundantly within the field. When it is coming to irrigation, organic agriculture use the most efficient and effective irrigation methods: micro irrigation methods such as drip irrigation (SCIALABBA 2015).

2.3. Fertilizer and nutrient management

Application of fertilizer is the most important section in the organic agriculture. Whole world recognize organic agriculture mainly as a system concern on environmentally sound fertilizer application and banned system for synthetic fertilizers. But the problem is, Is these system actually use organic fertilizer only for their nutrient requirement or still are they use synthetic fertilizers up to some extend? But there are no enough facts to say by literature records unless doing a proper survey.

Organic agriculture is always promoted and encouraged the organic fertilizers rather than inorganic or synthetic fertilizer. Mainly cover crop and decomposed poultry used for fertilization (Vasilikiotis 2000).

2.3.1. Compost

Composting is very important practice in the organic agriculture. Composting of all organic waste in general, farmyard manure and feedlot manure are to be composted and use as fertilizer to the field. Good management of manure improves the fertilizer value and less nutrient losses. Incorporating compost as a fertilizer to the soils improve the soil organic matter hence increase the water holding capacity of the soil supporting sufficient water for plants in extreme droughts. Compost tea and the herbal teas are currently shows a growing demand in organic agricultural sector (Meredith & Rishi 2011).

2.3.2. Green manure

Plants which are grown with the intension of accumulating nutrients for the crops are called as green manure. Cowpea, green gram, sunhemp are some examples and they work as surface of soil due to their slow rate of decomposition (SCIALABBA 2015).

2.3.3. Animal manure

Amount of animal manure applied for an organic agricultural farm usually higher than conventional agriculture when the yields of both are same (Kirchmann et al. 2008). Using animal manure refers to the biogas production and application of slurry to field as the fertilizer while taking methane out for energy requirements. Consistency of animal manure depends on whether animals kept in stable or not (SCIALABBA 2015; Ghimire 2002).

2.3.4. Microbial fertilizer

Biologically active products which contain active strains of microbes are called microbial fertilizers. Including bacteria, fungi, algae or combination of them mainly fix nitrogen, solubilize phosphate and zinc and absorb phosphate biologically as their duty. Table 1 shows the types of microbes used and their capacity of biological nitrogen fixation. As they enhance the soil fertility resulting 10%-20% increment in grain yield while it is cheap and make reduction in chemical fertilizer usage, organic agriculture always prefer microbial fertilizer to be use (S. Sheraz et al. 2009)

.

As S. Sheraz et al., 2009 mentioning the viable options to increase the unit productivity of a land is to use bio fertilizers in order to meet the future demand on food grains : 321 million tons in 2020. Always the demand for these inputs (28.8 million tons) increase and the availability is insufficient (7.2 million tons).

Beside these microbes, phosphate solubilizers such as Psuedomonas, Burkholderia, Achromobacter, Agrobacterium, Micrococcus, Aereobacter, Bacillus, phosphate absorbers like plants belong to Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae or Polygonaceae with Juncaceae and finally Zinc solubilizers are highly concern in the organic agricultural practices. Since the rhizobium is major topic regarding the fertilizer in organic agricultural systems, table 2 shows the different amount of nitrogen fixations according to the plant type.

S. Sheraz et al., 2009 also mention basic four types of constrains regarding microbial fertilizers;

  1. Production constrains: unavailability of appropriate strains, suitable media and mutations during fermentation.
  2. Market constrains: lack of awareness and quality assurance, inadequate experience and un assured seasonal demand.
  3. Resource constrains: scare resources for bio fertilizer production.
  4. Field constrains: existing microbial population, climatic and soil factors, inoculation techniques and liquid bio fertilizers, which are common in practical situations.

Use of bio fertilizers get specific according to the agricultural crops which are used in the field. As it is a legume or non-legume crop, the application and practices get differs.

Table 1: Major microbial fertilizers used in the organic agriculture and their capacity of function (S. Sheraz et al. 2009).

Microbial fertilizerMajor functionCapacity of functionComments
RhizobiumBiological N fixing100-300kg N/haFix 50-100 kg N/ha only with legumes like chickpea, soybean and lucerne.
AzospirillumBiological N fixing20-40 kg N/haMainly recommended for maize, sugarcane, sorghum or millet.
AzotobacterBiological N fixing

Produce antibacterial, anti-fungal compounds, hormones and siderophones

10 mg N/g of carbon sourceEspecially under vitro conditions.

Cereals, millets, vegetables, cotton, sugarcane are recommended crops.

Blue green algae -AzollaBiological N fixing

Contribute for significant amount of micronutrients (P, K, S, Zn, Fe, Mb)

20-30 kg N/haEspecially used in paddy cultivations.
MycorrhizaIncrease phosphorus and trace metal uptakeSymbiotic relation. Uptakes influence on hormones and effect on water and nutrient in the plant.

Table 2: Crop types with their N fixing capacity per hectare (S. Sheraz et al. 2009).

CropFixing capacity (kg/ha)
Clover100-150
Alfalfa100-300
Groundnuts50-60
Soybean60-80
Mungbean50-55
Pasture legumes100-400

2.3.5. Mineral fertilizers

As organic agriculture consider holistic approach rather systematic approach it’s prime objective is to have quality yield. Organic agriculture worry about the production rather than the type of input used whether it as organic or restricted or allowed. But the soluble inorganic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides or chemicals are prohibited to utilize in the organic concept (Demiryürek et al. 2008). Use of mineral fertilizer became essential due to several reasons that are natural and anthropogenic.

In some cases organic farmers tend to mimics the “limiting factor” approach of conventional systems except usage of chemical and synthetic inputs. This substitution approach is supported by the profit oriented economic systems for their sales increment (Allen & Kovach 2000)

In the other hand there is a criticism that organic agriculture cannot support sufficient amount of nitrogen fertilizers to sustain the current yield. The organic manure cannot be produced in the organic agricultural system itself as sufficient. But proper arrangement of legumes and non-legumes, green manure and bio fertilizers can provide considerable amount of nitrogen during a year. In some experiments it is evident that manure based systems can effectively fertile the soil and also provide enough nitrogen to buildup nitrogen storage in the soil (Ex: Rothamsted and Rodale experiment).

When practice legumes in the field, the amount of nitrogen available to the other crops over the entire rotation should be sufficiently high. Which is normally a difficult task to obtain unless grows legumes in every second year at a minimum. The other limitation of using legumes is the soil fertility only possible at the expense of not using the yield for export from the field (Kirchmann et al. 2008).

Low nutrient availability and the poor weed control limit the organic agricultural yield thus leading organic farmers to utilize more synthetic fertilizers. Applying economical tools such as decrease of subsidizes for chemicals and fertilizers results reduction in consumptions. Iran supply an example of having 50% cost reduction through subsidized rate of pesticides and losing the export market due to excess international standard levels of chemical residues with food. And cotton cultivation is pesticide intensive crop system, 80% of cultivated systems in Egypt utilize biological pesticide for them while their government forbidden the Arial application of pesticides for cottons (Scialabba 2000).

According to the S.Sheraz et al, 2009 it mention that there is a ten million tons gap of plant nutrients between the chemical fertilizer supply and the removal of crops from the field. Table 3 include the mineral fertilizers which are allowed in organic agriculture.

Table 3: Mineral fertilizers which are allowed under organic farming

FertilizerOriginApplication
Plant ashesBurned organic mattersTo compost and around the plant base
LimeGround limestone and algaeWithin certain frequency when soil pH is low
Stone powderPulverized rocksTo far yard manure
Rock phosphatePulverized rocks containing PhosphorusTo compost and not to reddish soil.

2

When we consider the world fertilizer usage in the main countries of organic farming: USA, Europe and Oceania the demand can be identified as illustrate below. (figure 1). Potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus supply and demand illustrated in figure 2, 3 and 4 respectively.

Figure 1: 2016 Total primary nutrient demands in thousand tons (FAO,2016)

 

Figure 2: World potassium fertilizer demand and supply in thousand tons (FAO, 2016)

Figure 3: Nitrogen fertilizer supply and demand in thousand tons (FAO, 2016)

Figure 4: Phosphorus fertilizer demand and supply (FAO, 201)

3.2.6. Pest and disease management

Pests and diseases are very common in organic agriculture due to its plenty of diversity. Microbial pesticides including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses, biochemical pesticides and integrated pest management are long term activities for preventing pests and diseases rather controlling. Use of proper sanitation measures, light traps, color and water traps, yellow sticky traps, fruit bagging, natural pesticides such as Neem, pyrethrum, chilies, capsicum pepper, garlic and some chemicals like sulphur and Bordeaux mixture (copper sulphate and lime) are some techniques use in organic agriculture as solutions for pest and diseases (Ghimire 2002; Bàrberi 2002; SCIALABBA 2015). Soil-borne root diseases are less sever in the organic agriculture than conventional agriculture (Lotter 2003).

Since most of these botanical pesticides are contact, respiratory and stomach poisons, it is difficult to target particular pest in the field. But the range of pesticides is broad. So these are not very selective and disadvantage is many of beneficial organisms may be destroyed.

3.2.7. Mulching and weed management

Weeds are the most serious threat in the organic agriculture where the crop weed relation dynamics highly influence on crop yield. Faster release of the nutrients promotes weeds to grow rapidly at early stages. Application of manure to field can carry weeds seeds as observed by Mt Pleasant and Schlater (1994), 1 kg of cattle manure contained up to 42vialble weed seeds of Chenopodium album L. weeds. It can be overcome by composting properly before manure application in the field. Fungi can be used for biological weed control and physical control through harrowing, hoeing, manual weeding or flaming. Some plant traits such as plant height are competitive with weeds (suppress weeds) but on the other hand the yield is drastically reduced. Production of allelochemicals also both positive and negative effects depending on the crop variety grown in the field (Bàrberi 2002).

As organic agriculture is limited to two techniques of weed control (mechanical- physical and biological), the weed population is normally higher in the organic fields. As prevention techniques crop management and mulching are practice, but mulching also contribute to higher

moisture retention and covering the sunlight penetration which leads to pests and diseases Beside that living green cover can be practice as in Africa, sowing cowpea and melons or pumpkins as intercrop in cassava to control weeds. Balanced fertilization, land preparation practices, soil cultivation methods and biological weed controls are practice in the field (SCIALABBA 2015). Cultivation of legumes also indirectly control weed (Elsen 2000).

  1. Certification and labeling of organic agriculture

The term organic is a labeling term that the product is produced according to the organic standards throughout the production process, handling process, processing & marketing process (lotter, 2003). Labeling is a source of information of product. This information combines with the intentions of green consumers and drives the growth of progressive markets (kovach, 2000 march).the serious barriers to green consumer about the product, is the absence of nationally accepted standards or coding systems for determining what products are environmentally sound” (Ellington et al., 1990: 7). By the labeling system of organic industry overcome this problem.

Organic certification is very important for market purposes, especially when distance is great from producers to consumers and there is a need to verify the organic claim (lindenlauf, 2010march). Organic standards focus mainly on allowable environmental friendly inputs, they tend to suggest that the value of organic product is a function of the inputs themselves instead of the whole labor process that went into producing the commodity. Through the allowable input usage organic label show the reduction of natural social complexity (kovach, 2000 march)

There is not a constant organic standards. They are not static. These certification standards change every few year. According to the entry of new allowable inputs, new production and processing techniques certification standards will be changed by the certification committee (merfield, 2006). Organic standards do not currently permit the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

There are lots of organic certification and standards in world wide. Today, 395 organizations worldwide offer organic certification services (willer, 2007). In 1992 the EU implemented organic standards with Regulation 2092/91 for the production, processing, and trade5 of organic products. The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), Codex Aliment Arius, and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) are the three bodies of central to global organic production standards.

IFOAM is a private, non-profit, Europe-based organization member organizations from 105 countries. IFOAM’s Basic Standards for organic production, processing, and distribution have been used extensively since the 1970s for development of certification programs by bodies such as the EU, FAO, and various national organic programs.

ISO65, an international standards protocol administered by the International Organization for Standardization, sets requirements for bodies operating product certification systems. Bodies such as the EU require ISO65compliance by certifiers of organic product producers that export to the EU. The new USDA Organic Rule requires ISO 65compliance for certifying bodies (USDA 2000c).

The democratically developed IFOAM Basic Standards (IFOAM 2005b) that have existed for more than twenty years. During the 1990s CODEX Aliment Arius (a joint FAO/WHO body) also developed international organic guidelines, which are very similar to the IFOAM Basic

Standards in their scope. The EU, the USA and many other developed, and increasingly developing, countries have enshrined these guidelines within their own legislation. (rundgren, 2006 feb)

Organic certification is required by farmers also to annually inspect and confirm that their farms and businesses adhere to the organic standards established by various trading partners. However, according to the Codex Guidelines on Organically Produced Food (2007), products produced on land under organic management for at least one year, but less than the two-three year requirement could be sold as “transition to organic”; but very few markets have developed for such products.

.

Requirement of registration and license of fertilizer are another necessary for organic production. Since April 2006, quality of Bio fertilizers such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB and organic fertilizers such as City waste compost, vermicompost and press mud are being monitored under the Fertilizer Control Order (Amendment November 2009).

  1. Marketing and demand of organic agriculture

The organics market is a powerful engine that provide the space and resources for social movement activity. Due to the growth of the organic market the number of producer and consumer is increased. Increased number of potential participants promote the social movement of the organic markeesearch, conference, and other political activity. And it is a source for the fund for it try to change the environment positively because it encourages greater environmental awareness and promotes the responsibility among producers and consumers alike. Its environmental benefits and its ability to use and alter capitalist markets, organic agriculture is currently a positive force for environmentalism (kovach, 2000 march). At the same time it promotes social and political positivizes. Organic market system needs greater openness and transparency. Real information about the producer should be given on the packaging, or particular route of sale (rundgren, 2006 feb).

Healthy food is very important requirement for everyone. Providing healthy food is one of the future issue nowadays. Food, fiber, feed demand is greatly increase in future because of the population growth. By 2030, the global population may reach 8-9 billion (holger krichmann, 2005). Therefore the demand of organic food is increasing, there is another view of argument about the demand due to the more expensive of organic food. Low-income families and people in the third world would not be able to afford it. This higher price difference of organic product is the result of higher demand (vasilikiotis, 2000 november).

Organic agriculture has become an option to improve household food security with the economic crisis, mostly in developed countries. IFOAM is encouraging the development of local and regional markets, both in developed and developing countries. Domestic marketing of organic food in developing countries is currently expanding rapidly in countries such as Costa Rica, Brazil, the Philippines and Thailand (rundgren, 2006 feb). Germany is a biggest market for organic products with an annual turnover of 3.9 billion euros. Italy and franc take following places (willer, 2007).

Developed country’s’ organic product market is very developed like their country.it produce for a premium price market. But in recent decades we can see the substantial growth of organic agriculture market in developing country. Self-declarations or participatory guarantee system another method of organic quality assurance for the market place. Participatory guarantee systems are non-certified initiatives that use standards written by the producers themselves, often based on IFOAM‘s Basic Standards (rundgren, 2006 feb). Some of the general principles can be agreed upon, but they are not standardized certification like third party certification.

Policy, goals on organic agriculture improve,

  • Strengthening agricultural research and knowledge transfer
  • Building institutional capacities and human capital in developing countries
  • Developing domestic markets and improving market access in developing countries
  • Creating new opportunities for poor farmers

Under the Policy recommendation of Canadian international development agency (CIDA) organic market get a special space for it. They are,

  • Contribute to capacity building of organic farmer cooperatives.
  • Promote the development and integration of organic markets.
  • Help in developing domestic organic markets.

(seafert)

If we take U.S organic market as an example, it has continues expansion in several ways. they are, increasing the number of retail outlets with respect to type and number, increasing the number of organic products available in each outlet type, entry of mainstream food manufacturers into organic, branding of organic, and increased export. But growth of the market is depending on green consumers’ demand (greene, 2005).

National and supranational policies for organic agriculture have been so far concerned with creating favorable structures for the market development. And it provides legal definitions for product. Market demand for organic agriculture products pulls agriculture production policies towards a more sustainable direction and links demand and supply (scialabba, 2000 august).

Demand of the organic product has been increasing annually. For example, Annual growth rates of certified organic product sales in the U.S. have exceeded 20% since 1992, 25% in the European Union 36% in the U.S. in 1997 .The global organic Product market value in 2001 is estimated to be $20B with the U.S. and EU OP shares valued at $6B and $8B, respectively in 2000, and Japan $1.7B in 1997. Global markets for organic products are projected to continue to grow at 5-40% yr-1 and in the U.S. 20-30% in the medium term (lotter, 2003).

 

Western Europe (52%) and North America (45%) are the major market for organic agriculture. The world retail market has rapidly grown by 131%, reaching US$21.5 million between 1996 and 2000. About 1–4% of total world food sales are derived from organic food (Yussefi, 2003). Organic Monitor expected that world organic food sales would reach US$40 billion by 2006, following a 43% increase between 2002 and 2005 (kursal demiryurek, 2008 december).

Another example of turkey organic market is that export organic products to 37 different countries, mainly to Germany, the Netherlands, the UK, Italy and France in the EU. Switzerland, the USA, Belgium, Denmark, Austria, Thailand, Spain, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Bulgaria, India, Japan, Slovenia and New Zealand are other developing export markets worth promoting turkey has a wide organic market (kursal demiryurek, 2008 december). And India also an organic market supplier in world wide. It has tremendous potential to grow crops organically (s.sheraz mahdi, 2010)

  1. Product quality and production

5.1. Yield

At present it is inevitable of using chemical inputs in agriculture to meet the growing demand for food in world; there are opportunities in some crops and niche areas where organic production can be increased to tape the domestic export market.(Kashmir 2010)

Organic methods are impossible of producing more food as conventional methods (Badgley et al. 2007). There are no sufficient organically acceptable fertilizers to make enough organic food. Organic farmers use polycultures and multiple cropping systems, from which the total production per unit area is often substantially higher than for single crops (Badgley et al. 2007).

The yield of the crops are reduced because of climate change, scarcer water supply and extending land degradation as a result of that it will not be able to provide sufficient, accessible and nutritious foods. Under certain conditions (e.g. legumes and perennials in rain fed agriculture and under favorable soil acidity) organic yields might nearly match conventional yields.

Sustainable yield increases in low-input system through agro ecological methods like agroforestry, integrated pest management or the use of leguminous green manures. The adoption of sustainable management practices; increase the yield on average by 79% while simultaneously increasing the environmental performance of agriculture (Seufert 2012). Usages of external inputs are limited in organic agriculture farming systems. Synthetic fertilizers and chemical pesticides are not used (Scialabba & Mu 2010).

Organic yields are 20% less as compared to high-input systems in developed countries but could be up to 180% higher as compared to low-input systems in arid/semi-arid areas. As an example, Turkey is a developing country which based on export agriculture by production of organic product to European unions. About 85% of organic products are exported to European countries. There is a great potential in Turkey for organic agriculture because it’s geographic and topographic structure which suitable for various crops as diverse climate and ecological conditions (Demiryürek et al. 2008). The U.S. produces 36% of the world’s organic cotton (USDA-FAS 1998) and its acreage grew by 75% from 1998-1999 (Marquardt 2000), but organic cotton accounted for only 0.1% of U.S. cotton in 1997. Approximately 1/3 of U.S. culinary and medicinal herb acreage is organic.(Lotter 2003)

All though European Union has been compulsory to use organically produced seeds for sowing organic crops since 31st December 2003, the demand for organic seed is much higher than its availability (Bàrberi et al. 2016). The cereal production of the world is estimated to achieve 2295 million tons by 2012 but it was unable to fulfill and it down by 52 million tones or 2.2 percent because of declining prospect in maize production in the United States as a severe drought (Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations Rome, 2012).

    1. Health

Organic agriculture is supposed to produce healthier and more nutritious food and could thus potentially contribute to dietary and nutritional needs (Seufert 2012). Organic methods could sustain the current human population, in terms of daily caloric intake. The current world food supply provides 2786 kcalperson-1 day-1. The average caloric requirement for a healthy adult is between 2200 and 2500 kcalday-1(Badgley et al. 2007). The vegetable and fruit products grown in organic agriculture would be expected to be more health-promoting than conventional ones.(Brandt & Mølgaard 2001)

    1. Nutrition

Nutrient contents of organically produced foods do not appear to differ strongly. Their bioavailability as well as the nutrient quality might be better in organic food. Non-nutrient components, like plant secondary metabolites, might be higher in organic food and might provide the most important health benefit of organic food (Seufert 2012).

Higher diversity of organic systems could thus potentially improve the nutritional status of organic farmers (Seufert 2012).

Obtaining food security by sustainable agriculture, fixed nitrogen requirement must be increasingly met by biological nitrogen fixation rather than by industrial nitrogen fixation (Kashmir 2010).

Our global estimate of Nitrogen fixed by the use of additional leguminous crops as fertilizer is 140 million Mg, and the global use of synthetic N fertilizer was 82 million Mg. so there is 58 million Mg greater than the amount of used (Badgley et al. 2007).

Plant nutrients availability is influenced by primary nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Generally protein content increases with nitrogen uptake and sugar content rises when phosphorous levels are low relative to other elements (Brandt & Mølgaard 2001). When plants are grown with artificial nutrients and pesticides, they are supposed to lose their natural defense mechanisms (Brandt & Mølgaard 2001).

There is a roughly same nutrient content in vegetables which produced by organic and conventional. It can be vary with changing soil type and farming system. The contents of protein, and in particular of nitrate, were consistently lower in organic products, which confirms that they, on average, would have been grown with lower nutrient supply than the conventional ones.(Brandt & Mølgaard 2001)

A number of comparative studies have found higher total-N concentrations and lower protein quality in Conventional Products. Differences in N-content and quality can be ecologically important, as high nitrogen and free amino acids have been shown to increase susceptibility to pests (Lotter 2003). C/N balance is a special and typical case of the growth/differentiation balance theory, since low nitrogen availability of the most common growth-limiting condition in natural ecosystems.(Brandt & Mølgaard 2001)

Quality after storage has been reported to be better in organic products relative to conventional products after comparative tests (Lotter 2003).

  1. Sustainability

Assessment of the potential of organic agriculture to the sustainability has to be considered under main 4 topics:

1. The environmental benefits

2. The yield potential

3. The social acceptability and

4. Accessibility to rural farmers (Seufert 2012).

To be a sustainable system the organic agriculture should comply with economically viable, ecologically sound and socially acceptable conditions through long term changes of political, social and economic structures and relationships (Allen & Kovach 2000). One of the main principles of organic agriculture is based on the work in living environment with ecological cycles and helps them to sustain. It refers as ecological principle. The next is principle of fairness, means this all practices should be based upon the relationship to ensure the safe of common environment and life opportunities. Principle of care refers to the precautionary and responsible actions towards the protection of wellbeing at present and future generations. The precautionary principle addresses the protection of human, animal and environment throughout the technological adaptions. Principle of animal welfare is to ensure the protection and proper take caring of animals without stress conditions with their natural behaviors. The principle on soil ensures and enhances the soil fertility throughout the framing (Ghimire 2002).

Organic agriculture is not just based on short term profit oriented goals but on long term sustainable approach which benefits for each and every one. Organic agriculture should meet the triple challenge of food production increment, providing nutritious food with proper accessibility and finally minimizing the environmental impacts while farming.

Organic agriculture may not sustainable in the context of land cost approach since it uses much higher amount of land area to sustain the food production. But enhancing the yield per unit area support to overcome such situations (Guzmán Casado & González de Molina 2009; Demiryürek et al. 2008). Ecological sustainability aims less harm to the environment while enhancing the species richness and abundancy, improving the soil structure and fertility, greenhouse gas emission reduction from fossil fuel burning, carbon sequestration, crop management practices to diversify animal and plant occurrence to sustainably maintain the environment through organic agriculture (Seufert 2012). A study show that growth of organic tea obtained 10-11% of carbon footprint while 6-7% obtained by the same product in conventional system. This results evidence large amount of compost and manure usage considerably contributes to the global warming (9% of the total global warming potential). And 5.5% of total global warming potential is due to high use of nitrogen fertilizer in conventional farms (Doublet & Jungbluth 2010). Nitrogen mineralization potential, microbial abundance and diversity are considered as health indicators in higher organic agricultures (Kirchmann et al. 2008). US livestock operation produces more than one million tons of manure per year contribute to sever global warming issues unless use it in an organic field in a proper way. 28% of organic carbon normally occurs in organic fields. Most of literature reveal that organic agriculture is less destructive to the soils , in same way it improve the soil physical, chemical and biological properties (Gabriel et al. 2010). Conversion of conventional systems in to organic conserves 9-51% of energy generally used in agriculture. Global environment policy objectives, combating desertification, carbon off setting, global warming are the roles of organic agriculture (Rundgren 2007).

Callauch in 1981, mentioned weed community of neighbor lands are two to three times greater than organic agriculture. Exclusion of fossil fuel from organic systems, made declining trend in emissions to be results environmentally sounds. 0.4-0.6% Gt of carbon dioxide are reducing due to lack use of synthetic fertilizers. Compacted soils emit more nitrous oxides and lowering the bulk density or enhancing soil aeration is applicable in such situations. Intensive fertilization, higher nitrogen usage both leading to the infertile topsoil thus reduces the yield (Scialabba & Müller-Lindenlauf 2010).

As Guzmán Casado and González de Molina, 2009 mentioned land cost is a good indicator to degree of sustainability in organic agriculture. Improve in soil structure due to organic manures, enhancing soil fertility by use of mulches and legumes conserve the soil, reduce the surface runoff, increase infiltration, promote biological diversity, recycling the nutrients, use of renewable energies make organic agriculture sustainable in the ecological context.

Organic agriculture is dominant in developed countries while increasing trend seems to be in developing countries. Major market for organic products can be seen in developed countries due to its high rates. But most of productions are in developing countries giving more opportunities to rural people to make quality lifestyles. One of major objective of organic agriculture is to move towards sustainability by rural development.

Low cost inputs including irrigations, energy and other external inputs only required for the system while capacity building through researches and training.50-60% lower cost for cereals, 10-20% lower for horticultural and potatoes while 20-25% lower cost for dairy production by their average values (Lotter 2003). This production system reduce the risk of low yields due to various crop managements as mention before thus ensure the returns and economic stability. High demand from international market provides access to local farmers’ products in higher rates ensuring the profits. There are about 633891 organic farmers cultivating 0.7% of total agricultural lands (Demiryürek et al. 2008). Organic agriculture provide nearly 30% employment in rural areas resulting higher return for unit labour input while the operational cost is considerably lower (Meredith & Rishi 2011). And also D.lotter, 2003 shows that environmental cot is lower in organic agriculture than conventional all together stand for betterment of rural social lives while ensuring the economic benefits.

Social health is highly concern in organic agriculture considering physical, mental and social wellbeing of people rather prevention of disease or illness which already a prerequisite of organic agriculture. With these multidimensional benefits the poverty alleviation and rural development is ensured through organic practices. Inter-generational and intra-generational equity is well representing by this systems. Agrochemical exposure and impacts related to that are critically evaluated since it causes hazardous effects on community. So organic agriculture more sounds safety in this aspect by ensuring the safety for farmers and related communities.

  1. Discussion

Organic farming has been improved in developed and developing country. But some countries still not have sufficient development. There some limitation and risk in organic farming sector specially in developing countries. Lack of the organic agriculture technique is one of the main limitation for the development of organic agriculture sector. Traditional and other organic agricultural techniques help to improve the rural development and sustainable agriculture. But the main thing is, supply more development technologies locally adapted forms of production (lindenlauf, 2010march).

Low yield potential is another major limitation. Nutrient shortage and high weed population reduce the organic yield. Due to the exclusive usage of on farm manures and untreated minerals, organic agriculture provide limited yield. Organic manure is limited resource.it is very difficult to get sufficient quantities for gaining high crop yield. We can get an example worldwide. Europe organic agriculture yield is less than it conventional agriculture yield. compared with conventional agriculture organic agriculture need more land to produce same amount of yield.it uses cropland less efficiently.so the large scale conversion to agriculture would be caused to severe food shortage in future.so if compensate the food demand by food supply, should be placed more development technologies in organic farming sector to increase yield (holger krichmann, 2005).

For keep competitive competition with conventional agriculture, organic farmers require new modern technologies and have to manage inputs such as labor, capital, land and innovation slightly different from conventional agriculture. It is very difficult to get specific inputs and biological method pest control by small farmers. Legumes and their residues can ability to replace the inorganic fertilizer. But the problem is usage of local input and untreated minerals alone cannot be overcome the low native soil fertility Poor farmers must overcome the trade barrier of organic certification (kilcher L., 2007). According to the OFRF survey, cost of the allowable inputs is the biggest constraint to organic agriculture production (lotter, 2003).

Organic farming needs high labor requirement to replace labor. Cover cropping, compost for nutrient management are used instead of synthetic herbicides and chemical fertilizers.so these action needs high labor intensity.so it is an important barrier to the adoption of organic management.

Large scale organic agriculture requires the external support from research institution to introduce pest management, strong extension system and agro ecological methods of fertility management. Organic agriculture research and extension work need substantial professional and substantial cost.it acts as a barrier for the development of organic agriculture (lotter, 2003).

Green customers who have well awareness improve the organic global and domestic market. Without the awareness and limited quantities of organic vegetables are the barriers to organic product promoting. Recently the amount of aware green consumer is increasing by the wealth and well education. (kursal demiryurek, 2008 december). So the organic market also increasing.

However the global organic market is developed, the participation of producers from poor countries is still low. This is another limitation. They cannot define their own local organic standards. The condition of small farmers in developing countries is complex in inspection, accreditation, and certification process of organic agriculture.so big question in marketing is, how market partners from developed and richer countries make the organic market more transparent and open to access for small farmers from developing country. Organic trade market benefits and income aren’t always equally distributed. So it has a less guarantee.

For both certified organic agriculture and non-market organic production, the major benefit to be derived from government and international organizational support is from adequate research and education. This would entail a shift of capital investments from hard to soft technologies – that is, from agricultural inputs (private goods) to knowledge building (a public good). This is a major challenge.

In the developing country government must focus both export market and the domestic consumption. And it try to stimulate both. Domestic market is limited because of lack promotion activities, lack of infrastructure, lack of consumer awareness, high prices and regulation (kursal demiryurek, 2008 december). Constraints for small farmers to adopting organic agriculture in developing country, less developed country. They are, Lack of knowledge about organic agriculture, Lack of economic and political advocacy, Population pressures encourage intensification, The high cost of certification by foreign organizations, Low literacy levels in rural areas make recordkeeping a problem, Lack of trade liberalization in some countries, prevents development of exports.

And also government give incentives to small farmers. They are providing organic agriculture indigenous knowledge, market opportunities, providing green revolution technologies (merfield, 2006). In many developing countries, there can be substantial delays before farmers receive the full payments for their organic produce and organic farmers often sell parts of their organic produce on lower-paying conventional markets to receive.

But the same time most of the developing country has rich biological diversity. Due to that species resistant to diseases is the main advantages of organic agriculture production in there (kursal demiryurek, 2008 december).

Commonly the major problem of organic agriculture are,

• Amount of share is low for conversion to organic farming.

• High price of bioproducts.

• lack of the legume production

• Lack of knowledge and techniques.

• Unsuitable crop rotation.

• Dual character of farm size category.

• Price per labor unit is higher.

• Higher cost per production

 

If these limitations, risks and constraint overcome organic agriculture provide more advantages environmentally, economically and socially. For example Soil fertility is a heart of healthy agriculture. By the absence of synthetic fertilizer organic agriculture provides contribution to healthy ecosystem, correct water table and proper soil fertility .environmental sustainability will be achieved.

Conventional agriculture is a cause for high pre consumer human health cost because of the pesticide usage. It is estimated that 25 million agricultural workers in developing countries are poisoned each year by pesticides .but in the organic agriculture there is no these kind of problem (lotter, 2003). Employment is increasing in the agriculture job market. Economical sustainability will be achieved.

Although Food security is the big issue in organic agriculture, it is essential practice in future. Does the organic agriculture fulfill the food demand future? This is the question running in every agriculturist mind. At the same time we have to think about another question? Does the conventional agriculture successfully feed the world nowadays? The answer is no. So high yielding high input system is currently failed to feed the world now. I think productivity is not a problem. The problem is social organization and food distribution pattern. So government should consider the improvement of organic farming either it fulfilling the demand or not.

 

  1. Conclusion

Although the organic agriculture and conventional agriculture have huge different in their productivity, environmental ecological social sustainability, input usage and the domestic global market; we cannot take clear decision for the best agricultural system.

Conventional agriculture has high productivity compared with organic agriculture. But we cannot reject the organic agriculture for the low productivity. Because productivity is not only the matter to fulfill the future demand. Conventional agriculture also cannot feed the world now.So the main things are food distribution pattern and social organization. Conventional agriculture cannot give the food security solely. Organic practices are also essential to our food security. It try to fulfill the demand with more sustainable and environmental friendly manner. If global food market will get the corporation from small organic farmer, organic agriculture and global organic market can achieve higher position. So the government must provide the incentives, guide the way for organic certification and global market participation to local small organic farmers.

 

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