Assignment writers in Sri Lanka

horton plains national park

 

C:\Users\suji\Desktop\hor.jpg

Introduction

Horton Plains National Park, Sri Lanka. HORTON PLAINS NATIONAL PARK, Sri Lanka is undoubtedly one of the world’s best nature reserves and eco- tourism venues. It is characterized by a beautiful landscape of rolling hills, covered in upper montane forest and wet patina grassland.

In general, the forests are seen on the hilltops or upper slopes the grasslands in the valleys and lower slopes, eventually giving way to wetland habitats. Spanning approximately 10,000 hectares the park is also home to a wide variety of flora (57 species, 29 endemic to Sri Lanka) and 24 species of mammal such as elk, deer, giant squirrel, wild boar, wild hare, porcupine and leopard. For bird enthusiasts, there 87 species (14 of which are endemic), including many migratory birds.

The Plains also feature many interesting attractions such as ‘Bakers Falls’, ‘Chimmini Pool’ and the famous ‘World’s End’ (a 3700 ft. Sheer drop that offers fabulous views of the tea estates below and all the way out to the distant southern coastline).

How to get there?

Horton Plains is 28 km south of Nuwara Eliya, one of the most famous tourist destinations of the island. There is easy access from the other major townships in the central hills, such as Bandarawela, Haputale and Hakgala. The Nearest Railway stations are Ohiya and Pattipola, on the Badulla Railway line.

C:\Users\suji\Desktop\download (1).jpg

C:\Users\suji\Desktop\images (6).jpg

History

The original name of the area was Maha Eliya Thenna (මහ එළිය තැන්න – “great open plain”). But in the British period the plains were renamed after Sir Robert Wilmot-Horton, the British governor of Ceylon from 1831 to 1837, who travelled to the area to meet the Ratemahatmaya of Sabaragamuwa in 1836, in 1834 by Lt William Fisher of the 78th Regiment and Lt. Albert Watson of the 58th Regiment, who ‘discovered’ the plateau. Stone tools dating back to Balangoda culture have been found here. The local population who resided in the lowlands ascended the mountains to mine gems, extract iron ore, construct an irrigational canal and fell trees for timber. A 6-metre (20 ft) pollen core extracted from a mire revealed that in the late quaternary period the area had a semi-arid climate and a species-restricted plant community.

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker had advised the British Government “to leave all Montane Forests above 5000 ft. Undisturbed” and an administrative order to this effect had been issued in 1873 that prevented clearing and felling of forests in the region. Horton Plains was designated as a wildlife sanctuary on 5 December 1969, and because of its biodiversity value, was elevated to a national park on 18 March 1988. The Peak Wilderness Sanctuary which lies in west is contiguous with the park. The land area covered by Horton Plains is 3,160 hectares (12.2 sq mi). Horton Plains contains the most extensive area of cloud forest still existing in Sri Lanka. On July 2010, the Central Highlands of Sri Lanka which incorporates Horton Plains National Park, Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and Knuckles Mountain Range was inscribed on the World Heritage List.

 

Bio diversity

  1. Fauna

The vertebrate fauna of the region includes 24 species of mammals, 87 species of birds, nine species of reptiles and eight species of amphibians. The Sri Lankan elephant disappeared from the region in the 1940s at the latest. At present, the largest and the most commonly seen mammal is the sambar deer. Some research findings estimate the population of sambar deer to be around 1500 to 2000, possibly more than the carrying capacity of the plains.  Other mammal species found in the park include Kelaart’s long-clawed shrews,toque macaquespurple-faced langursrusty-spotted catSri Lankan leopardswild boarsstripe-necked mongoosesSri Lankan spotted chevrotainsIndian muntjacs, and grizzled giant squirrelsFishing cats and European otters visit the wetlands of the park to prey on aquatic animals. A subspecies of red slender loris, the Horton Plains slender loris (Loris tardigradus nycticeboides formerly sometimes considered as Loris lydekkerianus nycticeboides) is found only in highlands of Sri Lanka and is considered one of the world’s most endangered primates. In July 2010 a group of researchers from the Zoological Society of London was able to photograph the mammal for the first time.

Along with Ohiya, Pattipola and Ambewela, Horton Plains forms one of the Important Bird Areas (ibas) in Sri Lanka. Together with the adjacent Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, Horton Plains contains 21 bird species which occur only on Sri Lanka. Four, Sri Lanka blue magpie,dull-blue flycatcherSri Lanka white-eye, and Sri Lanka wood pigeon, occur only in Horton plains, while other endemic species include Sri Lanka spurfowlSri Lanka junglefowlyellow-fronted barbetorange-billed babblerSri Lanka bush warbler, and Sri Lanka whistling-thrush. Many birds migrate here in winter including swiftlets, and alpine swiftCrested serpent eaglemountain hawk-eagleblack-winged kite, andperegrine falcon are among the birds of prey found in Horton Plains. Harriers are among the migratory raptors. This is a key wildlife area. All six highland endemic birds are found here, including dull-blue flycatcher, Sri Lanka white-eye, Sri Lanka wood pigeon, and Sri Lanka bush warbler. Yellow-eared bulbul and black-throated munia are widespread throughout the highlands.

Sri Lanka is considered a herpetological paradise in the world. Possibly about 15 amphibian species inhabit the park. Among them are Microhyla zeylanicaRamanella palmataFejervarya greeniiRana gracilisPhilautus altoPhilautus femoralisPhilautus frankenbergi,Philautus micro tympanumPhilautus schmarda, and Polypedates eques. De Silva has observed six endemic reptiles from the plains. They are Calotes nigrilabrisrhino horn lizardCophotis ceylanicaLankascincus taprobanensiscommon rough-sided snake, and rat snake. Two fish species found in the park, common carp and rainbow trout; both are introduced species. Horton Plains is also home to many endemic crustaceans including Caridina singhalensis and Perbrinckia species. The endemic freshwater shrimp Caridina singhalensis is found only in streams that have a temperature of less than 15 degrees C and is now restricted to only a stretch of 10 km of one stream

2.flora

The vegetation of the park is classified into two distinctive groups, 2,000 hectares (7.7 sq mi) of wet patana (Sinhalese for “montane grasslands”) and 1,160 hectares (4.5 sq. Mi) of subtropical montane evergreen forests. Nearly 750 species of plants belonging to 20 families have been recorded from the park. The forest canopy reaches the height of 20 meters (66 ft.) And features Calophyllum walkeri, forming communities with varieties of Myrtaceae species such as Syzygium rotundifolium, and S. Sclerophyllum, and Lauraceae members including LitseaCinnamomum, and Actinodaphne speciosa.  The undergrowth layer is characterized by Strobilanthes spp. The thickness of the Strobilanthes vegetation hinders the development of a herb layer. Dwarf bamboo species such Indocalamus and Ochlandra also found in the undergrowth layer. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa bushes specially grow in forest margin and near the mountain peaks. Species such as Gordonia and Rhododendron arboreum have spread to Sri Lanka, along the Western Ghats of South India from the Himalayas and are now common. Nearly 54 woody plant species have been recorded from the park, of which 27 (50%) are endemic to Sri Lanka.

Management plan of Horton plain national park

During the management plan they consider the sustainability of

Economy

Environment

Social

Culture

Goals of the management plan of it are,

Decrease the threats to the natural environment and the bio diversity of the Horton plain national park.

Support the nature conservation by the profit of Horton plain national park.

Increase the benefit of the tourism.

When we talk about management plan we have to consider the vision mission and goal.

The vision of the Horton plain national park is

Minimize the threats of ecosystem and conserve the nature environment.

Strategies, programs and activities are also established.

Successful monitoring is handled in Horton plain ecotourism once a particular period.

There are lot of qualified guides available for tourist.

Marketing plan of Horton plain national park

This is full and fully nature based eco tourism.so there is no camping within the area of Horton plain. But there are lot of beautiful separate places which are very suitable for nature enjoying such as waterfalls, nature walking and etc.

So the guide is essential to every group of tourists.

We can provide one guide for maximum 10 number of people.

We allow the large number of tourist group daily. There is no set package for group limiting.

Cost

You have to pay only the ticket amount. There is a small discount for children who are below six years old.

At the same time cost of the guide is depend on the number of people in one group and number of guide they hire. When we consider the guide cost we account the children who are in below six years also.

We are not providing luxury hotel within our national park. Only we provide resting place and small restaurant. We provide another ordinary canteen for local tourists in outside of our area.

Taste delicious food are provided in our restaurant.

Staying facility

No hotels in Horton plain area .But near to the Horton plain national park some hotels are in there.

They are

Villa tea field

Oakwell holiday bungalow

Grand hotel

The plain green bungalow.

The rate of above hotel per night

Villa tea field- 9752/=

Oakwell holiday bungalow- 4605/=

Grand hotel- 28509/=

The plain green bungalow.- 16667/=

Villa tea field

Located in Nuwara Eliya, Villa Tea Fields is 1.4 km from Gregory Lake. Hakgala Botanical Garden is 4.3 km away. Free private parking is available on site. All units include a sitting area. There is a private bathroom with free toiletries in each unit. Towels and bed linen are available.

Villa Tea Fields also includes a sun terrace.

This property is also rated for the best value in Nuwara Eliya! Guests are getting more for their money when compared to other properties in this city.

horton plains national park

 

C:\Users\suji\Desktop\hor.jpg

Introduction

Horton Plains National Park, Sri Lanka. HORTON PLAINS NATIONAL PARK, Sri Lanka is undoubtedly one of the world’s best nature reserves and eco- tourism venues. It is characterized by a beautiful landscape of rolling hills, covered in upper montane forest and wet patina grassland.

In general, the forests are seen on the hilltops or upper slopes the grasslands in the valleys and lower slopes, eventually giving way to wetland habitats. Spanning approximately 10,000 hectares the park is also home to a wide variety of flora (57 species, 29 endemic to Sri Lanka) and 24 species of mammal such as elk, deer, giant squirrel, wild boar, wild hare, porcupine and leopard. For bird enthusiasts, there 87 species (14 of which are endemic), including many migratory birds.

The Plains also feature many interesting attractions such as ‘Bakers Falls’, ‘Chimmini Pool’ and the famous ‘World’s End’ (a 3700 ft. Sheer drop that offers fabulous views of the tea estates below and all the way out to the distant southern coastline).

How to get there?

Horton Plains is 28 km south of Nuwara Eliya, one of the most famous tourist destinations of the island. There is easy access from the other major townships in the central hills, such as Bandarawela, Haputale and Hakgala. The Nearest Railway stations are Ohiya and Pattipola, on the Badulla Railway line.

C:\Users\suji\Desktop\download (1).jpg

C:\Users\suji\Desktop\images (6).jpg

History

The original name of the area was Maha Eliya Thenna (මහ එළිය තැන්න – “great open plain”). But in the British period the plains were renamed after Sir Robert Wilmot-Horton, the British governor of Ceylon from 1831 to 1837, who travelled to the area to meet the Ratemahatmaya of Sabaragamuwa in 1836, in 1834 by Lt William Fisher of the 78th Regiment and Lt. Albert Watson of the 58th Regiment, who ‘discovered’ the plateau. Stone tools dating back to Balangoda culture have been found here. The local population who resided in the lowlands ascended the mountains to mine gems, extract iron ore, construct an irrigational canal and fell trees for timber. A 6-metre (20 ft) pollen core extracted from a mire revealed that in the late quaternary period the area had a semi-arid climate and a species-restricted plant community.

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker had advised the British Government “to leave all Montane Forests above 5000 ft. Undisturbed” and an administrative order to this effect had been issued in 1873 that prevented clearing and felling of forests in the region. Horton Plains was designated as a wildlife sanctuary on 5 December 1969, and because of its biodiversity value, was elevated to a national park on 18 March 1988. The Peak Wilderness Sanctuary which lies in west is contiguous with the park. The land area covered by Horton Plains is 3,160 hectares (12.2 sq mi). Horton Plains contains the most extensive area of cloud forest still existing in Sri Lanka. On July 2010, the Central Highlands of Sri Lanka which incorporates Horton Plains National Park, Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and Knuckles Mountain Range was inscribed on the World Heritage List.

 

Bio diversity

  1. Fauna

The vertebrate fauna of the region includes 24 species of mammals, 87 species of birds, nine species of reptiles and eight species of amphibians. The Sri Lankan elephant disappeared from the region in the 1940s at the latest. At present, the largest and the most commonly seen mammal is the sambar deer. Some research findings estimate the population of sambar deer to be around 1500 to 2000, possibly more than the carrying capacity of the plains.  Other mammal species found in the park include Kelaart’s long-clawed shrews,toque macaquespurple-faced langursrusty-spotted catSri Lankan leopardswild boarsstripe-necked mongoosesSri Lankan spotted chevrotainsIndian muntjacs, and grizzled giant squirrelsFishing cats and European otters visit the wetlands of the park to prey on aquatic animals. A subspecies of red slender loris, the Horton Plains slender loris (Loris tardigradus nycticeboides formerly sometimes considered as Loris lydekkerianus nycticeboides) is found only in highlands of Sri Lanka and is considered one of the world’s most endangered primates. In July 2010 a group of researchers from the Zoological Society of London was able to photograph the mammal for the first time.

Along with Ohiya, Pattipola and Ambewela, Horton Plains forms one of the Important Bird Areas (ibas) in Sri Lanka. Together with the adjacent Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, Horton Plains contains 21 bird species which occur only on Sri Lanka. Four, Sri Lanka blue magpie,dull-blue flycatcherSri Lanka white-eye, and Sri Lanka wood pigeon, occur only in Horton plains, while other endemic species include Sri Lanka spurfowlSri Lanka junglefowlyellow-fronted barbetorange-billed babblerSri Lanka bush warbler, and Sri Lanka whistling-thrush. Many birds migrate here in winter including swiftlets, and alpine swiftCrested serpent eaglemountain hawk-eagleblack-winged kite, andperegrine falcon are among the birds of prey found in Horton Plains. Harriers are among the migratory raptors. This is a key wildlife area. All six highland endemic birds are found here, including dull-blue flycatcher, Sri Lanka white-eye, Sri Lanka wood pigeon, and Sri Lanka bush warbler. Yellow-eared bulbul and black-throated munia are widespread throughout the highlands.

Sri Lanka is considered a herpetological paradise in the world. Possibly about 15 amphibian species inhabit the park. Among them are Microhyla zeylanicaRamanella palmataFejervarya greeniiRana gracilisPhilautus altoPhilautus femoralisPhilautus frankenbergi,Philautus micro tympanumPhilautus schmarda, and Polypedates eques. De Silva has observed six endemic reptiles from the plains. They are Calotes nigrilabrisrhino horn lizardCophotis ceylanicaLankascincus taprobanensiscommon rough-sided snake, and rat snake. Two fish species found in the park, common carp and rainbow trout; both are introduced species. Horton Plains is also home to many endemic crustaceans including Caridina singhalensis and Perbrinckia species. The endemic freshwater shrimp Caridina singhalensis is found only in streams that have a temperature of less than 15 degrees C and is now restricted to only a stretch of 10 km of one stream

2.flora

The vegetation of the park is classified into two distinctive groups, 2,000 hectares (7.7 sq mi) of wet patana (Sinhalese for “montane grasslands”) and 1,160 hectares (4.5 sq. Mi) of subtropical montane evergreen forests. Nearly 750 species of plants belonging to 20 families have been recorded from the park. The forest canopy reaches the height of 20 meters (66 ft.) And features Calophyllum walkeri, forming communities with varieties of Myrtaceae species such as Syzygium rotundifolium, and S. Sclerophyllum, and Lauraceae members including LitseaCinnamomum, and Actinodaphne speciosa.  The undergrowth layer is characterized by Strobilanthes spp. The thickness of the Strobilanthes vegetation hinders the development of a herb layer. Dwarf bamboo species such Indocalamus and Ochlandra also found in the undergrowth layer. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa bushes specially grow in forest margin and near the mountain peaks. Species such as Gordonia and Rhododendron arboreum have spread to Sri Lanka, along the Western Ghats of South India from the Himalayas and are now common. Nearly 54 woody plant species have been recorded from the park, of which 27 (50%) are endemic to Sri Lanka.

Management plan of Horton plain national park

During the management plan they consider the sustainability of

Economy

Environment

Social

Culture

Goals of the management plan of it are,

Decrease the threats to the natural environment and the bio diversity of the Horton plain national park.

Support the nature conservation by the profit of Horton plain national park.

Increase the benefit of the tourism.

When we talk about management plan we have to consider the vision mission and goal.

The vision of the Horton plain national park is

Minimize the threats of ecosystem and conserve the nature environment.

Strategies, programs and activities are also established.

Successful monitoring is handled in Horton plain ecotourism once a particular period.

There are lot of qualified guides available for tourist.

Marketing plan of Horton plain national park

This is full and fully nature based eco tourism.so there is no camping within the area of Horton plain. But there are lot of beautiful separate places which are very suitable for nature enjoying such as waterfalls, nature walking and etc.

So the guide is essential to every group of tourists.

We can provide one guide for maximum 10 number of people.

We allow the large number of tourist group daily. There is no set package for group limiting.

Cost

You have to pay only the ticket amount. There is a small discount for children who are below six years old.

At the same time cost of the guide is depend on the number of people in one group and number of guide they hire. When we consider the guide cost we account the children who are in below six years also.

We are not providing luxury hotel within our national park. Only we provide resting place and small restaurant. We provide another ordinary canteen for local tourists in outside of our area.

Taste delicious food are provided in our restaurant.

Staying facility

No hotels in Horton plain area .But near to the Horton plain national park some hotels are in there.

They are

Villa tea field

Oakwell holiday bungalow

Grand hotel

The plain green bungalow.

The rate of above hotel per night

Villa tea field- 9752/=

Oakwell holiday bungalow- 4605/=

Grand hotel- 28509/=

The plain green bungalow.- 16667/=

Villa tea field

Located in Nuwara Eliya, Villa Tea Fields is 1.4 km from Gregory Lake. Hakgala Botanical Garden is 4.3 km away. Free private parking is available on site. All units include a sitting area. There is a private bathroom with free toiletries in each unit. Towels and bed linen are available.

Villa Tea Fields also includes a sun terrace.

This property is also rated for the best value in Nuwara Eliya! Guests are getting more for their money when compared to other properties in this city.

horton plains national park

horton plains national park

 

C:\Users\suji\Desktop\hor.jpg

Introduction

Horton Plains National Park, Sri Lanka. HORTON PLAINS NATIONAL PARK, Sri Lanka is undoubtedly one of the world’s best nature reserves and eco- tourism venues. It is characterized by a beautiful landscape of rolling hills, covered in upper montane forest and wet patina grassland.

In general, the forests are seen on the hilltops or upper slopes the grasslands in the valleys and lower slopes, eventually giving way to wetland habitats. Spanning approximately 10,000 hectares the park is also home to a wide variety of flora (57 species, 29 endemic to Sri Lanka) and 24 species of mammal such as elk, deer, giant squirrel, wild boar, wild hare, porcupine and leopard. For bird enthusiasts, there 87 species (14 of which are endemic), including many migratory birds.

The Plains also feature many interesting attractions such as ‘Bakers Falls’, ‘Chimmini Pool’ and the famous ‘World’s End’ (a 3700 ft. Sheer drop that offers fabulous views of the tea estates below and all the way out to the distant southern coastline).

How to get there?

Horton Plains is 28 km south of Nuwara Eliya, one of the most famous tourist destinations of the island. There is easy access from the other major townships in the central hills, such as Bandarawela, Haputale and Hakgala. The Nearest Railway stations are Ohiya and Pattipola, on the Badulla Railway line.

C:\Users\suji\Desktop\download (1).jpg

C:\Users\suji\Desktop\images (6).jpg

History

The original name of the area was Maha Eliya Thenna (මහ එළිය තැන්න – “great open plain”). But in the British period the plains were renamed after Sir Robert Wilmot-Horton, the British governor of Ceylon from 1831 to 1837, who travelled to the area to meet the Ratemahatmaya of Sabaragamuwa in 1836, in 1834 by Lt William Fisher of the 78th Regiment and Lt. Albert Watson of the 58th Regiment, who ‘discovered’ the plateau. Stone tools dating back to Balangoda culture have been found here. The local population who resided in the lowlands ascended the mountains to mine gems, extract iron ore, construct an irrigational canal and fell trees for timber. A 6-metre (20 ft) pollen core extracted from a mire revealed that in the late quaternary period the area had a semi-arid climate and a species-restricted plant community.

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker had advised the British Government “to leave all Montane Forests above 5000 ft. Undisturbed” and an administrative order to this effect had been issued in 1873 that prevented clearing and felling of forests in the region. Horton Plains was designated as a wildlife sanctuary on 5 December 1969, and because of its biodiversity value, was elevated to a national park on 18 March 1988. The Peak Wilderness Sanctuary which lies in west is contiguous with the park. The land area covered by Horton Plains is 3,160 hectares (12.2 sq mi). Horton Plains contains the most extensive area of cloud forest still existing in Sri Lanka. On July 2010, the Central Highlands of Sri Lanka which incorporates Horton Plains National Park, Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and Knuckles Mountain Range was inscribed on the World Heritage List.

 

Bio diversity

  1. Fauna

The vertebrate fauna of the region includes 24 species of mammals, 87 species of birds, nine species of reptiles and eight species of amphibians. The Sri Lankan elephant disappeared from the region in the 1940s at the latest. At present, the largest and the most commonly seen mammal is the sambar deer. Some research findings estimate the population of sambar deer to be around 1500 to 2000, possibly more than the carrying capacity of the plains.  Other mammal species found in the park include Kelaart’s long-clawed shrews,toque macaquespurple-faced langursrusty-spotted catSri Lankan leopardswild boarsstripe-necked mongoosesSri Lankan spotted chevrotainsIndian muntjacs, and grizzled giant squirrelsFishing cats and European otters visit the wetlands of the park to prey on aquatic animals. A subspecies of red slender loris, the Horton Plains slender loris (Loris tardigradus nycticeboides formerly sometimes considered as Loris lydekkerianus nycticeboides) is found only in highlands of Sri Lanka and is considered one of the world’s most endangered primates. In July 2010 a group of researchers from the Zoological Society of London was able to photograph the mammal for the first time.

Along with Ohiya, Pattipola and Ambewela, Horton Plains forms one of the Important Bird Areas (ibas) in Sri Lanka. Together with the adjacent Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, Horton Plains contains 21 bird species which occur only on Sri Lanka. Four, Sri Lanka blue magpie,dull-blue flycatcherSri Lanka white-eye, and Sri Lanka wood pigeon, occur only in Horton plains, while other endemic species include Sri Lanka spurfowlSri Lanka junglefowlyellow-fronted barbetorange-billed babblerSri Lanka bush warbler, and Sri Lanka whistling-thrush. Many birds migrate here in winter including swiftlets, and alpine swiftCrested serpent eaglemountain hawk-eagleblack-winged kite, andperegrine falcon are among the birds of prey found in Horton Plains. Harriers are among the migratory raptors. This is a key wildlife area. All six highland endemic birds are found here, including dull-blue flycatcher, Sri Lanka white-eye, Sri Lanka wood pigeon, and Sri Lanka bush warbler. Yellow-eared bulbul and black-throated munia are widespread throughout the highlands.

Sri Lanka is considered a herpetological paradise in the world. Possibly about 15 amphibian species inhabit the park. Among them are Microhyla zeylanicaRamanella palmataFejervarya greeniiRana gracilisPhilautus altoPhilautus femoralisPhilautus frankenbergi,Philautus micro tympanumPhilautus schmarda, and Polypedates eques. De Silva has observed six endemic reptiles from the plains. They are Calotes nigrilabrisrhino horn lizardCophotis ceylanicaLankascincus taprobanensiscommon rough-sided snake, and rat snake. Two fish species found in the park, common carp and rainbow trout; both are introduced species. Horton Plains is also home to many endemic crustaceans including Caridina singhalensis and Perbrinckia species. The endemic freshwater shrimp Caridina singhalensis is found only in streams that have a temperature of less than 15 degrees C and is now restricted to only a stretch of 10 km of one stream

2.flora

The vegetation of the park is classified into two distinctive groups, 2,000 hectares (7.7 sq mi) of wet patana (Sinhalese for “montane grasslands”) and 1,160 hectares (4.5 sq. Mi) of subtropical montane evergreen forests. Nearly 750 species of plants belonging to 20 families have been recorded from the park. The forest canopy reaches the height of 20 meters (66 ft.) And features Calophyllum walkeri, forming communities with varieties of Myrtaceae species such as Syzygium rotundifolium, and S. Sclerophyllum, and Lauraceae members including LitseaCinnamomum, and Actinodaphne speciosa.  The undergrowth layer is characterized by Strobilanthes spp. The thickness of the Strobilanthes vegetation hinders the development of a herb layer. Dwarf bamboo species such Indocalamus and Ochlandra also found in the undergrowth layer. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa bushes specially grow in forest margin and near the mountain peaks. Species such as Gordonia and Rhododendron arboreum have spread to Sri Lanka, along the Western Ghats of South India from the Himalayas and are now common. Nearly 54 woody plant species have been recorded from the park, of which 27 (50%) are endemic to Sri Lanka.

Management plan of Horton plain national park

During the management plan they consider the sustainability of

Economy

Environment

Social

Culture

Goals of the management plan of it are,

Decrease the threats to the natural environment and the bio diversity of the Horton plain national park.

Support the nature conservation by the profit of Horton plain national park.

Increase the benefit of the tourism.

When we talk about management plan we have to consider the vision mission and goal.

The vision of the Horton plain national park is

Minimize the threats of ecosystem and conserve the nature environment.

Strategies, programs and activities are also established.

Successful monitoring is handled in Horton plain ecotourism once a particular period.

There are lot of qualified guides available for tourist.

Marketing plan of Horton plain national park

This is full and fully nature based eco tourism.so there is no camping within the area of Horton plain. But there are lot of beautiful separate places which are very suitable for nature enjoying such as waterfalls, nature walking and etc.

So the guide is essential to every group of tourists.

We can provide one guide for maximum 10 number of people.

We allow the large number of tourist group daily. There is no set package for group limiting.

Cost

You have to pay only the ticket amount. There is a small discount for children who are below six years old.

At the same time cost of the guide is depend on the number of people in one group and number of guide they hire. When we consider the guide cost we account the children who are in below six years also.

We are not providing luxury hotel within our national park. Only we provide resting place and small restaurant. We provide another ordinary canteen for local tourists in outside of our area.

Taste delicious food are provided in our restaurant.

Staying facility

No hotels in Horton plain area .But near to the Horton plain national park some hotels are in there.

They are

Villa tea field

Oakwell holiday bungalow

Grand hotel

The plain green bungalow.

The rate of above hotel per night

Villa tea field- 9752/=

Oakwell holiday bungalow- 4605/=

Grand hotel- 28509/=

The plain green bungalow.- 16667/=

Villa tea field

Located in Nuwara Eliya, Villa Tea Fields is 1.4 km from Gregory Lake. Hakgala Botanical Garden is 4.3 km away. Free private parking is available on site. All units include a sitting area. There is a private bathroom with free toiletries in each unit. Towels and bed linen are available.

Villa Tea Fields also includes a sun terrace.

This property is also rated for the best value in Nuwara Eliya! Guests are getting more for their money when compared to other properties in this city.

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Introduction

Horton Plains National Park, Sri Lanka. HORTON PLAINS NATIONAL PARK, Sri Lanka is undoubtedly one of the world’s best nature reserves and eco- tourism venues. It is characterized by a beautiful landscape of rolling hills, covered in upper montane forest and wet patina grassland.

In general, the forests are seen on the hilltops or upper slopes the grasslands in the valleys and lower slopes, eventually giving way to wetland habitats. Spanning approximately 10,000 hectares the park is also home to a wide variety of flora (57 species, 29 endemic to Sri Lanka) and 24 species of mammal such as elk, deer, giant squirrel, wild boar, wild hare, porcupine and leopard. For bird enthusiasts, there 87 species (14 of which are endemic), including many migratory birds.

The Plains also feature many interesting attractions such as ‘Bakers Falls’, ‘Chimmini Pool’ and the famous ‘World’s End’ (a 3700 ft. Sheer drop that offers fabulous views of the tea estates below and all the way out to the distant southern coastline).

How to get there?

Horton Plains is 28 km south of Nuwara Eliya, one of the most famous tourist destinations of the island. There is easy access from the other major townships in the central hills, such as Bandarawela, Haputale and Hakgala. The Nearest Railway stations are Ohiya and Pattipola, on the Badulla Railway line.

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History

The original name of the area was Maha Eliya Thenna (මහ එළිය තැන්න – “great open plain”). But in the British period the plains were renamed after Sir Robert Wilmot-Horton, the British governor of Ceylon from 1831 to 1837, who travelled to the area to meet the Ratemahatmaya of Sabaragamuwa in 1836, in 1834 by Lt William Fisher of the 78th Regiment and Lt. Albert Watson of the 58th Regiment, who ‘discovered’ the plateau. Stone tools dating back to Balangoda culture have been found here. The local population who resided in the lowlands ascended the mountains to mine gems, extract iron ore, construct an irrigational canal and fell trees for timber. A 6-metre (20 ft) pollen core extracted from a mire revealed that in the late quaternary period the area had a semi-arid climate and a species-restricted plant community.

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker had advised the British Government “to leave all Montane Forests above 5000 ft. Undisturbed” and an administrative order to this effect had been issued in 1873 that prevented clearing and felling of forests in the region. Horton Plains was designated as a wildlife sanctuary on 5 December 1969, and because of its biodiversity value, was elevated to a national park on 18 March 1988. The Peak Wilderness Sanctuary which lies in west is contiguous with the park. The land area covered by Horton Plains is 3,160 hectares (12.2 sq mi). Horton Plains contains the most extensive area of cloud forest still existing in Sri Lanka. On July 2010, the Central Highlands of Sri Lanka which incorporates Horton Plains National Park, Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and Knuckles Mountain Range was inscribed on the World Heritage List.

 

Bio diversity

  1. Fauna

The vertebrate fauna of the region includes 24 species of mammals, 87 species of birds, nine species of reptiles and eight species of amphibians. The Sri Lankan elephant disappeared from the region in the 1940s at the latest. At present, the largest and the most commonly seen mammal is the sambar deer. Some research findings estimate the population of sambar deer to be around 1500 to 2000, possibly more than the carrying capacity of the plains.  Other mammal species found in the park include Kelaart’s long-clawed shrews,toque macaquespurple-faced langursrusty-spotted catSri Lankan leopardswild boarsstripe-necked mongoosesSri Lankan spotted chevrotainsIndian muntjacs, and grizzled giant squirrelsFishing cats and European otters visit the wetlands of the park to prey on aquatic animals. A subspecies of red slender loris, the Horton Plains slender loris (Loris tardigradus nycticeboides formerly sometimes considered as Loris lydekkerianus nycticeboides) is found only in highlands of Sri Lanka and is considered one of the world’s most endangered primates. In July 2010 a group of researchers from the Zoological Society of London was able to photograph the mammal for the first time.

Along with Ohiya, Pattipola and Ambewela, Horton Plains forms one of the Important Bird Areas (ibas) in Sri Lanka. Together with the adjacent Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, Horton Plains contains 21 bird species which occur only on Sri Lanka. Four, Sri Lanka blue magpie,dull-blue flycatcherSri Lanka white-eye, and Sri Lanka wood pigeon, occur only in Horton plains, while other endemic species include Sri Lanka spurfowlSri Lanka junglefowlyellow-fronted barbetorange-billed babblerSri Lanka bush warbler, and Sri Lanka whistling-thrush. Many birds migrate here in winter including swiftlets, and alpine swiftCrested serpent eaglemountain hawk-eagleblack-winged kite, andperegrine falcon are among the birds of prey found in Horton Plains. Harriers are among the migratory raptors. This is a key wildlife area. All six highland endemic birds are found here, including dull-blue flycatcher, Sri Lanka white-eye, Sri Lanka wood pigeon, and Sri Lanka bush warbler. Yellow-eared bulbul and black-throated munia are widespread throughout the highlands.

Sri Lanka is considered a herpetological paradise in the world. Possibly about 15 amphibian species inhabit the park. Among them are Microhyla zeylanicaRamanella palmataFejervarya greeniiRana gracilisPhilautus altoPhilautus femoralisPhilautus frankenbergi,Philautus micro tympanumPhilautus schmarda, and Polypedates eques. De Silva has observed six endemic reptiles from the plains. They are Calotes nigrilabrisrhino horn lizardCophotis ceylanicaLankascincus taprobanensiscommon rough-sided snake, and rat snake. Two fish species found in the park, common carp and rainbow trout; both are introduced species. Horton Plains is also home to many endemic crustaceans including Caridina singhalensis and Perbrinckia species. The endemic freshwater shrimp Caridina singhalensis is found only in streams that have a temperature of less than 15 degrees C and is now restricted to only a stretch of 10 km of one stream

2.flora

The vegetation of the park is classified into two distinctive groups, 2,000 hectares (7.7 sq mi) of wet patana (Sinhalese for “montane grasslands”) and 1,160 hectares (4.5 sq. Mi) of subtropical montane evergreen forests. Nearly 750 species of plants belonging to 20 families have been recorded from the park. The forest canopy reaches the height of 20 meters (66 ft.) And features Calophyllum walkeri, forming communities with varieties of Myrtaceae species such as Syzygium rotundifolium, and S. Sclerophyllum, and Lauraceae members including LitseaCinnamomum, and Actinodaphne speciosa.  The undergrowth layer is characterized by Strobilanthes spp. The thickness of the Strobilanthes vegetation hinders the development of a herb layer. Dwarf bamboo species such Indocalamus and Ochlandra also found in the undergrowth layer. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa bushes specially grow in forest margin and near the mountain peaks. Species such as Gordonia and Rhododendron arboreum have spread to Sri Lanka, along the Western Ghats of South India from the Himalayas and are now common. Nearly 54 woody plant species have been recorded from the park, of which 27 (50%) are endemic to Sri Lanka.

Management plan of Horton plain national park

During the management plan they consider the sustainability of

Economy

Environment

Social

Culture

Goals of the management plan of it are,

Decrease the threats to the natural environment and the bio diversity of the Horton plain national park.

Support the nature conservation by the profit of Horton plain national park.

Increase the benefit of the tourism.

When we talk about management plan we have to consider the vision mission and goal.

The vision of the Horton plain national park is

Minimize the threats of ecosystem and conserve the nature environment.

Strategies, programs and activities are also established.

Successful monitoring is handled in Horton plain ecotourism once a particular period.

There are lot of qualified guides available for tourist.

Marketing plan of Horton plain national park

This is full and fully nature based eco tourism.so there is no camping within the area of Horton plain. But there are lot of beautiful separate places which are very suitable for nature enjoying such as waterfalls, nature walking and etc.

So the guide is essential to every group of tourists.

We can provide one guide for maximum 10 number of people.

We allow the large number of tourist group daily. There is no set package for group limiting.

Cost

You have to pay only the ticket amount. There is a small discount for children who are below six years old.

At the same time cost of the guide is depend on the number of people in one group and number of guide they hire. When we consider the guide cost we account the children who are in below six years also.

We are not providing luxury hotel within our national park. Only we provide resting place and small restaurant. We provide another ordinary canteen for local tourists in outside of our area.

Taste delicious food are provided in our restaurant.

Staying facility

No hotels in Horton plain area .But near to the Horton plain national park some hotels are in there.

They are

Villa tea field

Oakwell holiday bungalow

Grand hotel

The plain green bungalow.

The rate of above hotel per night

Villa tea field- 9752/=

Oakwell holiday bungalow- 4605/=

Grand hotel- 28509/=

The plain green bungalow.- 16667/=

Villa tea field

Located in Nuwara Eliya, Villa Tea Fields is 1.4 km from Gregory Lake. Hakgala Botanical Garden is 4.3 km away. Free private parking is available on site. All units include a sitting area. There is a private bathroom with free toiletries in each unit. Towels and bed linen are available.

Villa Tea Fields also includes a sun terrace.

This property is also rated for the best value in Nuwara Eliya! Guests are getting more for their money when compared to other properties in this city.